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LIFESTYLE AND ECOLOGY

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Symbiotic Relationships Between Man, Animal and Nature

A Study of the Gujar of Garhwal... 

R. S. Negi

The Gujar are not yet fully convinced about the rehabilitation scheme. Their scepticism is natural and they will need a lot of persuasion and a humanitarian approach to finally make them move. Their viewpoint should be accommodated wherever feasible. For instance, they would like to have a minimum herd of ten buffaloes per family as they have the apprehension in their minds that less than that may not sustain their life-style. Till such time as there is a shift in their mode of subsistence this may be true, but the change may come in when they actually take up horticulture and agriculture or streamline dairying operations on a cooperative basis. However, there are exterior forces such as NGOs, activists and agitationists who for their own ends would like the Gujar to resist change altogether. One such NGO has just submitted a document to the Government of India that in view of the fact that 1993 has been declared by the United Nations as the Year of Indigenous Peoples, the Gujar should be given the management of forests, including the Rajaji National Area, and allowed to continue to live there. For one thing, the claim that the Gujar are indigenous people in the Siwaliks is far from true. They have a history of immigration into this area for only 100 to 150 years. Second, the Gujar are an illiterate people. They cannot even manage their trading relationship with the local bania and get exploited in the process. How they are expected to manage the forest and its conservation is difficult to understand. The NGO has already assumed the leadership role of a faction of the Gujar biradari.

The Gujar may have a deep knowledge of the forest as is claimed, but at present they use this knowledge for the over-exploitation of forest resources, allowing little or no opportunity for regeneration. This is a crisis situation and against the interest of the Gujar themselves in the long run. For instance, the excessive lopping that has been indulged in by the Gujar has already damaged the trees and the forest. The accumulation of dung in natural streams has choked them and created environmental hazards. The only solution, therefore, is that the Gujar must be pursuaded to move out of the forest and settle in the periphery, where they can still have the benefit of forest resources in a controlled manner that will allow regeneration of resources.

Appendix - I

Human Diseases and Curative System

The Gujar likewise do identify some human diseases and have their own curative system. In case of human too the recourse to the modern medicine is taken as a last resort.

Human Diseases and Their Cures

Sl. No. Name of Disease Symptoms Treatment
1 Kan peer (earache) Extreme pain in the ear and pus formation Heat garlic in mustard oil, make thin paste and use as ear drops.
2 Haddi Paigyan (bone fracture) Severe pain subsequent swelling Thick paste made of wheat flour and bark of maida wood(Litsaea sebifra) boiled in linseed (Linnum usitattisium) oil and milk is applied on the fracture.
3 Sojja (swelling) of body

-

Heat swagan (Moringa oleifera) leaves and apply on the affected part of the body.
4 Malaria Fever with shivering Leaves of ateesh (Aconitum heterophyllum) taken with a small quantity of water.
5 Khurk (itching) 

-

Massage of deciduous oil. If the cause is excessive heat, extract of kimala (Ficus glomenta)/orange (Citrus aurantifolia)/nimboo (Citrus medica) is given to the patient.
6 Phingari (boil) boils in the body turning sceptic after a few days Rub on the boil a paste of ground leaves of dhamni (Punica granatum) in oil.
7 Dhat girana (lucorrhoea) Discharge of white substance Avoid chilli and tea. Take only pulses and chapatis made of maize flour. Gum of bajaishal tree is soaked in water and put in a pot on the roof without a cover so that during the night dew falls into it. The patient is made to drink that water for 4 or 5 days continuously.
8 Tuberculosis Pain at the back of the chest; suffocating feeling during movement Take dried intestines of hen with honey twice a day. Take root of mindars.
9 Jad peer (toothache) Extreme pain in tooth; swelling of jaw Put under the tooth milky secretionof aakh (Catotropis procera) on cotton swab. Take fruit of Kantagaree (Caesapima dacapetta)
10 Catguan (bleeding)

-

Rub parijja (Cenchurus ciliasis) grass on the cut.
11 Pet peer (stomachache) Pain inthe stomach; severe discomfort Salt and sugar solution in hot water.
12 Nojla (fever)

-

Ground cumin seed and black pepper in tea.
13 Akha peer (eye ache) Eyes become reddish Single drop of honey so that dirt comes out.
14 kamalbai (jaundice) Eyes, nails and body become yellowish, urine yellowish Kaulbai (Clemalis connata) leaves used as mala.

Appendix - II

Flora

Hindi Name

Botanical Name

Achmehandi

Lycium europaceum

Amaltas

Cassia fistula

Arjun

Terminalia arjuna

Aam

Magnefera indica

Amda

Spondias magnefera

Anzori

Ficus palmata

Anwala

Emblica officinalis

Asna/Sain

Terminalia alta

Aru

Ailanthus excelasa

Ayar

Lyonia ovalifolia

Akara

Alangium salvifolium

Akashneem

Millingtonia hortensis

Amli

Antidesma acidium

Imli

Tamarindus indica

Ikdarnia

Bridelia retura

Imrai

Ulmus wallichaiana

Kakronda

Blumsea cacera

Kachnar

Bachunia variegata, Bachunia purpurae

Kathal

Artocaspus heterophyllus

Katera

Solanum surattense

Kadai

Flacurtia indica

Kathsagan

Haplopnragma adenophyllum

Kaner

Nerium indicum

Karzua

Caesalpinia crista

Kaizilia

Kigilia pinnata

Keekar Bilayati

Parkinsonia aculeata

Kuchla

Strychnos nuxvomica

Kuchle Ka Malang

Viscum monicum

Kumka

Alacia senegal

Kekra

Phoeba lanceolata

Kala Sirus

Albizia leblock

Kala Tendu

Diosphyrous melabrica

Kanju

Holoptelea integrefolia

Kaphal

Myrica esculanta

Kathber

Zizphus glaberrima

Kandhara

Xylosma longifolium

Kapoor

Cinnamomum comphora

Kathmara

Listsea monopitalu

Kaula

Machilum odoratissima

Kirmaull

Aur oblongum

Kumbhi

Caruya arborea

Kusum

Schleichera oleosa

Kanak champa

Plerospermum

Khardala

Sterkulia pallens

Khabar

Ficus rumbhii

Khajeda

Prospis spicigeria

Khagra

Teema politoria

Khazoor

Phoenix sylvestris

Khair

Acacia catechu

Khadik

Celtes tetrandra

Khurpat

Garuga pinnata

Khatti

Bahunia malabarica

Khaina

Ficus semicordata

Khamri

Ficus palmata

Ganera

Themidia quadrivalis

Gadmawa

Engelhardtia colebrookiana

Gair

Olea glandulifera

Gainthi

Bochimeria rugulosa

Gundala

Sterculia villosa

Gogina

Sauruja napaulensis

Gular

Ficus racemosa

Gammar

Cimelina arborea

Gutel

Trewia mudifloria

Genjra

Cochlospermum gogsipium

Gul Khekar

Althaca officinalis

Godela

Cordia vestita

Gong

Perris scandens

Chuka

Croton rox

Chamrod

Ethritia laevis

Chandana

Distsaea glutinosa

Chilkia

Wendlandia excreta

Chilla

Caseuria elliptica

Appendix - III

Fauna

Local Name

Zoological Name

Asian elephant

Elphas maximus

Tiger

Panthera tigris

Leopard

Panthera pardus

Leopard cat

Felis benglensis

Sloth bear

Melursus ursinus

Sambar or swamp deer

Urvus unicolor

Cheetal

Axis axis

Kakar or barking deer

Muntijacus muntjae

Para or flogdeer

Axis procinus

Neelgai

Bosephalus tragocamelus

Goral

Nemorrhaedus goral

Wild boar

Sus-Scrofa

Himalayan yellow throated martin

Marces falvigula

Appendix - IV

Kinship Terminology of the Gujar

Sl. No.

Relation

Addressing terms in Gojri

1.

BS

Bhatija

2.

BD

Bhatiji

3.

DD

Dohti

4.

DH

Jamain

5.

DHF

Samdhi

6.

DS

Dohta

7.

F

Abba

8.

FF

Dada

9.

FM

Dadi

10.

FZ

Phuphi

11.

FZDC

Vivi

12.

FZD(Y)

By name

13.

FZH

Phupha

14.

H

Gharwala

15.

HV(e)

Jeth

16.

HB(y)

Dewar

17.

HBD

Bhatiji

18.

HBW(e)

Didi

19.

HBW(y)

By name

20.

HF

Mama/Saura

21.

HM

Mami/Sasu

22.

HZ(e)

Nanad

23.

HZ(y)

By name

24.

HZD

Bhanji

25.

HZS

Bhanja

26.

M

Amma

27.

MB

Mamu

28.

MBW(e)

Mami

29.

MBW(y)

Mami

30.

MBS(e)

Bhanja

31.

MBS(y)

Bhanja

32.

MM

Nani

33.

MZ

Khala

34.

MZD

Bhatiji or by name

35.

MZH

Mausa/Mamu

36.

MZS

By name

37.

SD

Poti

38.

SS

Pota

39.

SWF

Samdhi

40.

SZ

Beti or by name

41.

WB(e)

Sala

42.

WB(y)

Sala or by name

43.

WBS

By name

44.

WBW

Bahu

45.

WF

Saura/Mama

46.

WM

Sasu/Mami

47.

WZ

Sali

48.

WZD

By name

49.

WZH

Bhai

50.

ZH

Bahnoiya

51.

ZHF

Mama/Saura

52.

ZHZ

Sali

53.

ZHB

Sala

Key

B - brother D - daughter
F - father H - husband
M - mother S - son
W - wife Z - sister

Appendix - V

Glossary of Gujar Terminology

Hindi Gojri English Euivalent
Material Culture    
(1)  Dress    

Choti bandhne ka

Paronda Pleat

 

Chooridar pazama

Sootanh Trouser

 

Kambal

Lui

Blanket

Kurta

Kurta

Shirt

Tahmat

Lungi

 

Maflar

Malfar

Muffler

Vasket

Fatoi

Waistcoat

Topi

Topi

Cap

(2) Ornaments

Chandi ki mala

Hamel

Silver necklace

Hath ka kada

Bang

Bangle

Hansali

Sire

Half-shaped silver necklace

Kan ka jhumka

Bunda

Ear-ring

Long

Tilli

Nose-pin

Moti ki mala

Tasvi/Manka

Taveej

(3) Food

Dal

Dadh

Pulses

Dahi

Khattai

Curds

Hari Sabji

Sag

Green vegetable

Matha

Lassi

Curd shake

Namak

Loonh

Salt

(4) House

Char diwari

Bad

Four-walled structure

Chauki

Beeda

Stool

Chaukhat

Pwado

Base of door frame

Chapper

Chhan

Hut (dwelling)

Chapper ka Thumb

Tham

Basal support

Darwaja

Pet

Door

Deewar

Bra

Wall

Khal-chokar dene ka sthan

Twala

Feeding place

Pattiyan

Pat

Wooden pieces

(5) Live stock

Apong

Beenga

Handicapped

Bhainsa

Jhotha

He-buffalo

Bhains ka Bachha

Katdu

Calves

Bhains panane ka sthan

Baik

Milking place

Dudharu

Laity

Milch buffalo

Dudh Na Dena

Fandar

Dry buffalo

Gai Ki Bachdi

Bachhu

She calf of cow

Than

Odha

Nipples (buffalo/cow)

Vyahta Bhains

Gabanh

Pregnant buffalo

(6) Cosmology (five elements)

Aag

Aag

Fire

Asman

Asman

Sky

Baad

Pani chadna

Flood

Barsat

Barsad

Rain

Chikkal

Bukkal

Bark

Chandrama nikalana

Chand chadna

Moonrise

Chandrma dubna

Chand dubna

Moonset

Garmi padna

Swa padna

Hot weather

Hawa

Vu

Wind

Jada

Syad

Winter

Koyla

Koda

Coal

Konpal

Patchh

Bud

Kohra

Kora

Fog

Khud ruka hua pani

Talai

Natural pond

Khud roka hua pani

Dabar

Self-made pond

Mol padna

Panchh Padana

Growing buds

Nark

Dozakh

Hell

Pani

Panhi

Water

Ped ka kata hissa

Mand

Part of tree

Rakh

Swa

Ash

Swarg

Jannat

Heaven

Suryodaya

Dhyada chadna

Sunrise

Suryast

Dhyada dubna

Sunset

Surya

Tulu

Sun

(7) Miscellaneous

Bichhona

Binna

Cloth used for sitting

Chikitsa

Ilaj

Treatment

Dost

Yar

Friend

Dulha

Lada

Bridegroom

Dulhan

Ladi

Bride

Dushman

Bari

Enemy

Gundna

Gundhna

Tattooing

Ghumavdar

Teda-meda

Curved

Kala

Mosa

Black

Khojna

Gwachna

Searching

Kona

Kahna

Corner

Lakdi

Laddad

Firewood

Mathha banane ka

Madi

Churning

Manh

Chalisa

10 kg

Massul

Panchni

Grazing fee

Parda

Pallv karna

Veil

Pardhan

Painchh

Chief

Path

Sabak

Lesson

Samooh

Tal

Group

Var-par

Tapna

Crossing a river

Vida

Ruksat

Parting

Vivah ka Nyota

Trimor

Marriage invitation

References

Atkinson, 188, Gazetteer of N.W. Province, Himalayan Districts.

Bhasin, C.L., 1979. Gujar Samasyaon ka Adhyayan tatha Punarvas.

Clason, A.T., 1977. ‘Wild and Domesticated Animals in Prehistoric and Early Historic India’. The Eastern Anthropologist, 30, 3.

Crooke, W., 1896. The Tribes and Castes of North-Western India.

Cunningham, A., 1871. Archaeological Reports, Vol. II (cited in Crooke 1896).

Darlington, C.D., 1969. The Evolution of Man and Society.

Evans-Pritchard, E.E. 1940. The Nuer.

Grierson, George A., 1916. Linguistic Survey of India, vol. IX, pt. IV.

Gulliver, P.H., 1955. The Family Herd.

Manku, D.S., 1986. The Gujja Settlement — A Study of Ethnic Geography.

Negi, R.S., 1982. ‘Population Structure of a Pastoral Nomadic Community of the Himalaya’. In P.K. Mishra and K.C. Malhotra, (eds.), Nomads in India.

——— and M.K. Raha, 1982. ‘The Gujar of North West Himalayas: From Pastoralism to Settlement’. In K.S. Singh, (ed.), Economics of the Tribes and Their Transformation.

Nityanand and K. Kumar, 1989. The Holy Himalaya.

Puri, G.S., 1960. Indian Forest Ecology.

Walton, H.G., 1989. Gazetteer of Garhwal Himalaya (reprint).

  

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