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DUNHUANG ART


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Periodization of the Mogao Caves

 

  1. The period of Sixteen Kingdoms (366-439): Seven Caves [Nos. 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 275].

  2. The Northern Wei period (439-534): Eight Caves [Nos. 251, 254, 257, 259, 260, 263, 265, 487].

  3. Western Wei period (535-556): Ten Caves [Nos. 246, 247, 248, 249, 285, 286, 288, 431, 435, 437].

  4. The Northern Zhou period (557-580): Fifteen Caves [Nos. 250, 290, 294, 296, 297, 298, 299, 301, 428, 430, 438, 439, 440, 442, 461].

  5. Sui Dynasty (581-618): Seventy Caves [Nos. 56, 59, 62, 63, 64, 206, 253, 255, 262, 266, 274, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 284, 292, 293, 295, 302, 303, 304, 305, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 388, 389, 393, 394, 396, 397, 398, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 407, 410, 411, 412, 413, 414, 416, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421, 422, 423, 424, 425, 426, 427, 430, 433, 434, 436, 451, 453, 455, 485].

  6. Early Tang (the first years of the Tang Dynasty, 618-704): Forty-four Caves [Nos. 57, 60, 68, 71, 77, 96, 202, 203, 204, 205, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 220, 242, 244, 280, 283, 287, 321, 322, 328, 329, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 338, 339, 340, 341, 342, 371, 372, 373, 375, 381, 386, 390, 392, 448].

  7. High Tang (the period which witnessed the high tide of the Tang imperial power, 705-780): Eighty Caves [Nos. 23, 26, 28, 31, 32, 33, 34, 39, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 66, 74, 75, 79, 80, 91,101, 103, 109, 113, 115, 116, 117, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123,124, 125, 126, 129, 130, 148, 162, 164, 165, 166, 170, 171, 172, 175, 176, 180, 182, 185, 194, 199, 208, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 225, 264, 319, 320, 323, 374, 384, 387, 444, 445, 446, 458, 460, 482, 484, 490].

  8. Middle Tang (the phase of decline of the Tang power, 781-847) also known as the Tubo (Tibetan) period: Forty-four Caves [Nos. 21, 92, 93, 112, 133, 134, 135, 153, 154, 155, 157, 158, 159, 179, 186, 188, 191, 197, 200, 201, 202, 222, 231, 236, 237, 238, 240, 258, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361, 365, 369, 370, 447, 469, 471, 472, 474, 475, 478, 479].

  9. Late Tang (the last phase of the Tang Dynasty, 848-906, during which Dunhuang returned to Chinese rule because of the military feat of a local general Zhang Yichao): Sixty Caves [Nos. 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 24, 54, 82, 85, 94, 102, 104, 105, 106, 107, 111, 114, 127, 128, 132, 138, 139, 141, 144, 145, 147, 150, 156, 160, 161, 163, 167, 168, 173, 177, 181, 183, 184, 190, 192, 193, 195, 196, 198, 221, 227, 232, 241, 336, 337, 343, 459, 470, 473].

  10. Five Dynasties (907-923): Thirty-two Caves [Nos. 4, 5, 6, 22, 36, 40, 53, 61, 72, 78, 86, 90, 98, 99, 100, 108, 137, 146, 187, 226, 261, 300, 342, 346, 362, 385, 391, 440, 441, 468, 469, 476].

  11. Song Dynasty (only the early part, 960-1035): Forty-three Caves [Nos. 7, 15, 25, 34, 35, 55, 58, 65, 67, 73, 76, 89, 94, 118, 130, 136, 152, 170, 174, 178, 189, 230, 235, 243, 256, 264, 289, 355, 364, 368, 376, 377, 427, 431, 443, 444, 449, 452, 454, 456, 457, 467, 478].

  12. Western Xia (1036-1226): Eighty-two Caves [Nos. 6, 16, 27, 29, 30, 37, 38, 69, 70, 78, 81, 83, 84, 87, 88, 97, 140, 142, 151, 164, 165, 169, 206, 207, 223, 224, 229, 233, 234, 239, 245, 246, 252, 263, 265, 281, 291, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 330, 339, 344, 345, 347, 348, 349, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, 356, 363, 365, 366, 367, 378, 382, 388, 389, 395, 399, 400, 408, 409, 415, 418, 420, 432, 437, 450, 460, 464, 491].

  13. Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty (1227-1368): Ten Caves [Nos. 1, 2, 3, 95, 149, 462, 463, 464, 465, 477].

 

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