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DUNHUANG ART


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Cave Nos. [ 1 - 50   |  51 - 100  |  101 - 150  |  151 - 200  |  201 - 250 ]

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A Glimpse of the Mogao Caves

 

Cave No. 1

Period of Construction: Yuan (renovated in Qing).

Contents: A set of four statues cast in Qing is sheltered in the niche on the west wall. Traces of the Buddha throne are extant on the south wall.

Cave No. 2

Period of Construction: Yuan (renovated in Qing).

Contents: There are nineteen statues on the horse-hoof shaped Buddha altar along the north, south and west walls. The south wall has miniature Buddha paintings drawn during Yuan at the lower level.

Cave No. 3

Period of Construction: Yuan (the stucco statues being redecorated during Qing).

Contents: The caisson ceiling displays four sculpted dragons in the centre. The niche on the west wall houses a statue sculpted in Qing. The south wall portrays an eleven-headed thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokite¿vara. On the east is Indra. The north wall features similar paintings as the south wall. Above the entrance on the east wall are five cross-legged sitting Buddhas. To the south of the entrance is the portrait of Avalokite¿vara holding the nectar flask and to the north is the Avalokite¿vara who distributes wealth among the people.

Cave No. 4

Period of Construction: The Five Dynasties (the stucco statues being redecorated during Qing).

Contents: On the central altar are seventeen statues carved in Qing. On the south wall from west to east are illustrations of the La´k¡vat¡ra-S£tra, S£tra for Redemption from Indebtedness, Amit¡bha-S£tra, the Saddharma-pu¸·ar¢ka-S£tra. Below them is a painting of three female donors (facing east) and six male donors (facing west). There is a seven-panel screen on which Buddha stories are painted. Drawn below the screen is a narrow doorway inside which are shown flaming pearls and flowers. Above the entrance on the east wall is an illustration of the Vi¿eÀacint¡brahma-parip¤cch¡-S£tra; a male and four female donors with one attendant are drawn below.

Cave No. 5

Period of Construction: The Five Dynasties (the stucco statues being redecorated in Qing).

Contents: Corridor: The ceiling shows illustrations of s£tras, which are blurred, and six and eight auspicious signs remain on the northern and southern slopes respectively.

Main Hall: Miniature Buddhas are on the north, south and west slopes of the ceiling. Sheltered in the niche on the west wall are nine statues cast in Qing and a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne. On the south wall from west to east are the illustrations of the Maitreya-S£tra, Amit¡bha-S£tra, S£tra for Redemption from Indebtedness; below them are twelve male donors. On the north wall from west to east are the illustrations of Vi¿eÀacint¡brahma-parip¤cch¡-S£tra and three paintings of the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra, and below them are two female donors. To the south and north of the entrance of the east wall are illustrations of the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra, the south side has Maµju¿r¢ with four male donors below him; the north side has Vimalak¢rti, but faded at the bottom.

Cave No. 6

Period of Construction: The Five Dynasties (renovated during Western Xia).

Contents: Ante-room: Three preaching scenes are extant on the ceiling with the west and south walls featuring the fight between S¡riputra and Raudr¡kÀa.

Corridor: An Avalokite¿vara painted on the ceiling along with KÀitigarbha and ten lieutenants; seven Buddhas on both north and south walls.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows parrots and coiled dragons, circular lines, decorative hangings and floral motifs; all four slopes feature the preaching scene of the Trinity of Buddha. On the ceiling of the niche on the west wall the chess- board patterns and cluster of flowers are the principal designs. The east and west slopes have five cross-legged sitting Buddhas, two Aupap¡dakas; the south slope has three cross-legged sitting Buddhas, one Aupap¡daka and a lotus while the north slope shows three cross-legged sitting Buddhas and two Aupap¡dakas. On the south wall from west to east are illustrations of Amit¡bha-S£tra and the  Saddharma-pu¸·ar¢ka-S£tra, and below it a painting of nine bodhisattvas drawn in Western Xia. On the north wall from west to east are an illustration each of the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra and Avatamsaka-S£tra, below it a painting of nine bodhisattvas drawn in Western Xia. Adorning the east wall is an illustration of the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra. Above the entrance is a depiction of Buddhaloka; to the north and south of the entrance are the portraits of Vimalak¢rti and Maµju¿r¢ respectively; below it a painting of five bodhisattvas drawn during Western Xia.

Cave No. 7

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (the paintings redrawn during Song and the cave renovated during Yuan and Qing).

Contents: Corridor: On the ceiling miniature Buddhas are drawn on lotus, with thirteen Buddhas on the southern slope and eleven on the northern. Portraits of the Cao family patrons are drawn on the south and north walls.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling is decorated with lotus designs in the centre, on the four slopes are camellia, chestnut lines and decorative hangings encircled by sixteen heavenly musicians. A á¡kyamuni preaches in the centre on the western slope, below it are ponds, kalavi´kas and, on either side, various Buddhas attending the sermon in five groups. Miniature Buddhas are painted on the south, east and north slopes and a preaching scene occupies the central place on each of these slopes. The niche on the west wall houses a set of five statues cast in Qing. On the south wall from west to east are illustrations of the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra (the east side portrays the nine inauspicious deaths) and the Maitreya-S£tra. A painting of twelve male donors and two bhikÀus is seen below. On the north wall from west to east are illustrations of the Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra (the east side portrays the sixteen meditations) and the Devat¡-S£tra; below it a painting of thirteen female donors and one bhikÀun¢. Above the entrance of the east wall is a portrait of a cross-legged Buddha drawn in Yuan, on either side of the entrance is an illustration of the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra, to the north is Maµju¿r¢ and to the south is Vimalak¢rti, seven alms-offering bhikÀus are seen below.

Cave No. 8

Period of Construction: Late Tang.

Contents: Corridor: The ceiling features art designs, on the west wall two male devotees and one bhikÀu are painted.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling is damaged, but fragments of a preaching scene are visible in the corner of the west and south slopes. The south slope depicts Avalokite¿vara rescuing people from calamities. A pattern remains on the north wall niche's lintel; the west wall has an illustration of the Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra with the sixteen meditations on the south side; on the north side Aj¡ta¿atru is seen along with sixteen meditations. An illustration of the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra and the twelve great vows are shown on the east wall. The south wall shows a painting of á¡kyamuni preaching the dharma and a host of kings in attendance; the western section shows S£rya attending the sermon, to the east of the entrance are the figures of two male donors while to the west are two bhikÀus attending the deities.

Cave No. 9

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated during the Yuan, Song and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The west slope of the ceiling exhibits three portraits of Avalokite¿vara (a large portion has been damaged). The south end shows the Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara. Above the door of the west wall is a portrait of Vai¿rava¸a attending Nata's sermon. The south wall is Cave No. 10. The north wall is Cave No. 8 all inside this cave.

Corridor: On the ceiling are paintings of Buddhist historical stories such as the stone statue floating on the river, and Vai¿rava¸a and S¡riputra drying the sea. On the south and north walls are the portraits of important imperial officers stationing in northwest China during Late Tang.

Main Hall: The canopy shaped niche of the central column shelters nine images carved in Qing, a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne, twelve bottle shaped doors on each of which are drawn seven gems and a precious pearl. The walls of the niche are painted with the images of Buddhas and bodhisattvas and other figures. The west wall illustrates the La´k¡vat¡ra-S£tra. The top portion of the wall is decorated with floral motifs forming a border design. The south wall illustrates the fight between S¡riputra and Raudr¡kÀa decorated with border designs similar to those on the west wall. The illustration on the north wall is that of Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra decorated with border designs on the west and south walls. A painting of four male donors is seen above the entrance of the east wall, to the south and north of the entrance are illustrations of the Samantabhadra-S£tra and Maµju¿r¢ -S£tra respectively.

Cave No. 10

Period of Construction: Late Tang (the stucco statues being renovated during Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: On either side of the entrance on the western wall are six bhikÀus (out of which two have faded).

Main Hall: Three statues carved during Qing can be seen in the main hall. The central theme of the caisson ceiling is the eleven-headed and twelve-armed Avalokite¿vara.

Cave No. 11

Period of Construction: Qing Dynasty.

Contents: The north wall has a set of three statues chiselled during Qing and a painting of a screen with clouds and dragons drawn in Qing.

Cave No. 12

Period of Construction: Late Tang (repainted during the Five Dynasties, the stucco statues being renovated in Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: Two sets of miniature Buddhas, one set of which in six rows painted during Late Tang and the other in two rows painted during the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows a lion and a lotus in the centre; circular lines, chestnut lines, floral motifs and decorative hangings can be seen on the four slopes; hovering on the four sides are sixteen heavenly musicians. There are miniature Buddhas drawn on the four slopes with a preaching scene at the centre. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a Buddha and two disciples, four bodhisattvas and two devar¡jas repaired in Qing and a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne. From west to east on the south wall are illustrations of the Saddharma-pu¸·ar¢ka-S£tra, Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra and Maitreya-S£tra; painted below these is the eleven-panel screen showing the Universal Gate of Avalokite¿vara on four panels, Aj¡ta¿atru and sixteen meditations on the fifth, sixth and seventh panels, the world of Maitreya on the eighth, ninth, tenth and eleventh panels. West-eastwards on the north wall are illustrations of the Avatamsaka-S£tra, BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra and Devat¡-S£tra with the eleven-panel screen below these illustrations. Above the entrance of the east wall are donor figures of a male and a female and two attendants and to the north of the entrance is an illustration of the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra; below it is a three-panel screen with paintings; to the south of the entrance is an illustration of the S£tra for Redemption from Indebtedness and below this is a three-panel screen with paintings.

Cave No. 13

Period of Construction: Late Tang (the statues being renovated in Qing).

Contents: The caisson ceiling shows camellia flowers in the centre, the four slopes have the floral motifs and decorative hangings. Seen below in two rows are the miniature Buddhas. The niche on the south wall houses a statue carved in Qing.

Cave No. 14

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated during Song and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: To the north of the west wall is a portrait of devar¡ja; the south wall has an illustration of the Sukh¡vat¶-S£tra drawn in Song.

Main Hall: The east-facing niche of the central column has a set of seven statues cast in Qing and a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne. The west wall is painted with miniature Buddhas; below it an eleven-panel screen on which are drawn bodhisattvas and bhikÀus. On the south wall from west to east are the portraits of Vajrap¡¸i Avalokite¿vara, eleven-headed Avalokite¿vara, Amoghap¡Üa Avalokite¿vara, thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokite¿vara; below it a sixteen-panel screen with the figures of bodhisattvas and bhikÀus. The north wall shows images of Avalokite¿vara; below it another sixteen-panel screen with painted figures. Above the entrance of the east wall is a painting of á¡kya and Prabh£taratna; to the north and south of the entrance are portraits of Maµju¿r¢ and Samantabhadra respectively and below each portrait is a four-panel screen painted with bodhisattvas and bhikÀus.

Cave No. 15

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated during Song).

Contents: The centre of the caisson ceiling is damaged; the four slopes have floral motifs and decorative hangings. Adorning the west slope is an illustration of Maitreya-Sµutra; the south and north corners have figures of King Rangqu, the crown prince and Rangqu's concubine are seen in the crowd. The south slope has the Maitreya-S£tra. An interesting scene of a marriage ceremony of a 500-year old woman is painted on the east and west corners. The ceiling of the niche on the west wall is painted with flowers, pearls arranged in close sequence; the mural on the west slope consists of a set of five standing Buddhas and two bodhisattvas. The south wall has an illustration of the Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra; to the east and west are the sixteen meditations and Aj¡ta¿atru respectively; below is an illustration of an unknown s£tra. The west side of the north wall portrays the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra and the twelve great vows. Figure of a tantric bodhisattva can be seen on the east wall to the south of the entrance.

Cave No. 16

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated during Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: Corridor: The ceiling has chess-board and floral patterns; the north and south slopes showing garlands and decorative hangings. The north and south walls have preaching scenes with a row of bodhisattvas below.

Main Hall: The Buddha platform has nine Buddha statues cast in Qing. Decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas painted in Western Xia are seen on the west, south and north walls. Above the entrance of the east wall are the decorative hangings drawn in Western Xia; below it are drawn lotus flowers and a set of three sitting Buddhas on the right and left respectively. Decorative hangings are seen to the north and south of the entrance with miniature Buddha images below. The ceiling features sculpture in relief with paintings of dragons and phoenixes drawn in Western Xia.

Cave No. 17

Period of Construction: Late Tang.

Contents: The west wall has a tablet from the fifth year of Dazhong Era (851). The north wall has a painting of two trees drawn in Late Tang; below the trees, to the west is the figure of a female attendant. This cave is north-facing. This cave is the famous one which had stored ancient manuscripts and printed scriptures which were discovered by a Taoist priest Wang Yuanlu.

Cave No. 18

Period of Construction: Late Tang (the stucco statues being renovated during Yuan).

Contents: Main Hall: The caisson ceiling has lotus and floral designs in the centre with kalavi´ka birds; also seen are chestnut lines, circular lines, floral motifs and decorative hangings, flying figures all around. The four slopes show miniature Buddha images with a preaching scene in the centre. The niche on the west wall has the statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, Ënanda and one each of the devar¡ja of northern and southern directions recast in Yuan, and a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne and nine bottle shaped doors with flying figures painted on them. The south wall from west to east features stories of the Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra; below it a three-panel screen with paintings and donors further below; a three-panel screen below showing the World of Maitreya. The north wall shows illustrations of the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra, below it three-panels with depictions of the nine inauspicious deaths and the Vajracchedik¡-S£tra drawn on them. Further below are three panels with the depiction of the Vajracchedik¡-S£tra. Above the entrance of the east wall are two male and female donors with attendants behind them; to the south of the entrance is a portrait of Vimalak¢rti from the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra and to the north is one of Maµju¿r¢ also from the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra.

Cave No. 19

Period of Construction: Late Tang.

Contents: The centre of the caisson ceiling has floral designs which are peeling off. The four slopes have the decorative hangings, floral motifs and the miniature Buddha figures with a cross-legged Buddha sitting in the centre. The ceiling of the niche on the west wall shows pomegranates and floral motifs. The four slopes of the ceiling show four meditating Buddhas and two Aupap¡dakas. Two meditating Buddhas can also be seen on both the north and south slopes and two alms-giving bodhisattvas on the south slope and one on the north slope. The Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra with sixteen meditations on both sides adorns the south wall. The north wall shows the S£tra for Redemption from Indebtedness with the Chapter of Bad Companion to the west.

Cave No. 20

Period of Construction: Late Tang (the statues being renovated in Qing).

Contents: The centre of the caisson ceiling shows a lion and lotus; the four slopes are decorated with floral motifs and decorative hangings, miniature Buddhas with a preaching scene in the centre also adorn the four slopes. The niche on the west wall contains two statues cast in Qing. On the south wall from west to east is an illustration each of the Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra and S£tra for Redemption from Indebtedness with a screen painted below. On the north wall from west to east is an illustration each of BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra and Maitreya-S£tra. Above the entrance of the east wall and facing each other are a male donor and female donor and behind them are a male and female slave; to the north and south of the entrance are portraits of Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara and Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara respectively; painted below Amoghap¡¿a is a two-panel screen showing the World of Maitreya and below the Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara is another two-panel screen.

Cave No. 21

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Yuan).

Contents: Ante-room: Male and female donors drawn in the Five Dynasties are on both the north and south sides of the entrance on the west wall. The south wall shows traces of a painting drawn in Yuan.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows two decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The ceiling of the niche on the west wall has a preaching scene drawn in the Five Dynasties which is the main painting; the west and south slopes show one and two flying figures respectively. Illustrations of s£tras can be seen on the south wall which were redone during the Five Dynasties, a major portion of it has faded.

Cave No. 22

Period of Construction: The Five Dynasties (the statues being renovated in Qing).

Contents: A set of statues cast in Qing are sheltered in the east-facing niche along with a horse-hoof shaped throne. The ceiling shows the coiled dragon and lotus designs; the four slopes reveal floral designs, circular lines, chestnut lines, floral motifs and decorative hangings. The west, south and east slopes each has a painting of Buddhas of the ten directions, below it a preaching scene amidst the miniature Buddhas. The north slope also has the Buddhas of ten directions along with miniature Buddhas. The rear portion of the south wall has a preaching scene, while the front portion shows the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra and Devat¡-S£tra. The front portion of the north wall has two scenes of the Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra. To the north and south of the entrance on the east wall are portraits of Vimalak¢rti and Maµju¿r¢ respectively depicting the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra.

Cave No. 23

Period of Construction: High Tang (the murals being repainted during Middle Tang and the Five Dynasties and the statues renovated during Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: Miniature Buddhas painted in the Five Dynasties cover the ceiling. Above the entrance of the west wall are the decorative hangings and two cross-legged sitting Buddhas painted during the Five Dynasties. The south wall is Cave No. 24. Above the entrance of the cave are drawn decorative hangings, a flying figure and a devar¡ja.

Corridor: With fragments of a depiction of M¡ravijaya drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling has lotus designs in the centre. The west, south, north and east slopes illustrate the Maitreya-S£tra, the Universal Gate of Avalokite¿vara, Amit¡bha-S£tra and the Saddharma-pu¸·a¢¶ka-S£tra respectively. The niche on the west wall has lined up seven Buddha statues. The south wall illustrates the Chapter of Stµupa Sandarsan parivartana from the Saddharma-pu¸·a¢¶ka-S£tra, the Chapter on the Universal Gate of Avalokite¿vara and Chapter on the City of Illusion. The north wall has illustrations of three chapters of the Saddharma-pu¸·a¢¶ka-S£tra. The murals above the entrance of the east wall and to the north and south also depict the Saddharma-pu¸·a¢¶ka-S£tra.

Cave No. 24

Period of Construction: Late Tang.

Contents: There are nine miniature Buddhas in the south-west corner of the ceiling. The west wall shows fragments of the depiction of the Amit¡bha-S£tra; the east wall shows the remains of a s£tra depiction.

Cave No. 25

Period of Construction: Song (the stucco statues being renovated during Qing).

Contents: Corridor: With fragments of depictions of Buddhist historical legends.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling has lotus and dragon designs in the centre, while the four slopes have pearl strings, circular lines, flower clusters, and floral motifs and decorative hangings as border designs. Painted around the caisson ceiling are sixteen flying musicians. The west, north and south slopes display the Avatamsaka-S£tra while the east slope shows the Maitreya-S£tra. Seen in the niche on the west wall are five statues sculpted in Qing and two celestial animals. The mural on the south wall depicts the fight between S¡riputra and Raudr¡kÀa and that on the north wall picturing Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra. Above the entrance of the east wall is a portrait of Avalokite¿vara, to the north is Amoghap¡Àa Avalokite¿vara, and to the south is Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara; below both these portraits are flying figures and donors.

Cave No. 26

Period of Construction: High Tang (the stucco statues being renovated in Middle Tang, the Five Dynasties and Qing Dynasties).

Contents: Ante-room: Faded depictions of Maµju¿r¢, Samantabhadra and other s£tras on all walls drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Corridor: The ceiling shows an Usher Buddha in the centre and Avalokite¿vara (faded) on the north wall, both drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows clouds and floral designs in the centre; the four slopes have the floral motifs, decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall has a statue of cross-legged sitting Buddha carved in Tang (repaired in Qing) and four statues carved in Qing. The top portion of the south wall shows floral border designs, below it are three rows of miniature Buddhas; the middle portion has the portraits of KÀitigarbha, Avalokite¿vara and others drawn in Middle Tang (Avalokite¿vara being retouched in the Five Dynasties). The north wall has the same art designs on top, with faded miniature Buddhas below. To the north of the entrance of the east wall is a painting of two bodhisattvas, whose lower portions are blurred, while to the south are miniature Buddhas.

Cave No. 27

Period of Construction: High Tang (murals being redrawn during Western Xia and the statues recast during Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The ceiling has a painting of cross-cudgels, lotus and flaming pearls drawn during Western Xia.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows round petalled lotus designs. The niche on the west slope shows statues of á¡kyamuni and Prabh£taratna cast in Tang. The niche on the west wall contains a statue of cross-legged sitting Buddha carved in Tang; the north and south walls illustrate the Sukh¡vat¶-S£tra. Flowers are painted above the entrance of the east wall; the north and south sides each have three bodhisattvas; and a bodhisattva each to the north and south of the entrance.

Cave No. 28

Period of Construction: High Tang.

Contents: Only the west slope of the ceiling has miniature Buddhas. The depiction of Buddha preaching the dharma on the west wall is damaged, only the Buddha head remains.

Cave No. 29

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated during Western Xia and Qing Dynasties).

Contents: Ante-room: The ceiling shows fragments of miniature Buddhas painted during Late Tang.

Corridor: The ceiling features floral and chess-board designs with painted hanging curtains on the northern and southern slopes. Two attending bodhisattvas are on both the north and south walls.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling displays lotus, circular lines, floral motifs. The four slopes show chess-board patterns, flower clusters and celestial musicians. The niche on the west wall contains nine statues sculpted in Qing; a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne with a lotus throne on top. Flying figures are drawn inside the niche. There are miniature Buddhas on the north, south and east walls partially damaged.

Cave No. 30

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties, Western Xia and Qing Dynasties).

Contents: Ante-room: The west wall has a picture of á¡kyamuni preaching.

Corridor: An Usher Buddha on the ceiling and four sitting Buddhas on the northern and southern slopes.

Main Hall: The ceiling has the cross-cudgel designs in the centre; the four slopes show circular lines and floral motifs, chess-board and floral patterns and decorative hangings. The niche on the west wall features five Buddha statues, and a statue of á¡kyamuni and Ënanda with halo carved in Tang; the rest of the statues being cast in Qing. The north wall features two bodhisattvas with halo. The north and south walls show á¡kyamuni preaching; on each of the two corners is a bodhisattva. Above the entrance of the east wall is the scene of á¡kyamuni preaching; to the north of the entrance is the thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokite¿vara, while to the south of the entrance is the thousand-armed Maµju¿r¢ with a bowl in each hand.

Cave No. 31

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The ceiling has a portion of the preaching scene drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Corridor: An Usher Buddha in the centre of the ceiling drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The ceiling has floral designs in the centre; the four slopes show floral motifs and decorative hangings. The south slope has an illustration of the Chapter on St£pa sandarsan parivartana of the Saddharma-pu¸·ar¢ka-S£tra; the south slope has a picture of Samantabhadra attending the sermon, the north slope shows Maµju¿r¢ attending the sermon and the east slope illustrates two chapters of the Saddharma-pu¸·ar¢ka-S£tra, all drawn in High Tang. The niche on the west wall contains seven statues carved in Qing. The south wall has a portrait of Rocana Buddha; the north wall illustrates the S£tra for Redemption from Indebtedness. Above the entrance of the east wall is the scene of á¡kyamuni preaching, while figures of Indra are seen to the north and south of the entrance.

Cave No. 32

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during Middle Tang and the Five Dynasties).

Contents: Ante-room: Above the entrance of the west wall are three preaching scenes painted in the Five Dynasties. Portraits of Vai¿rava¸a and Vir£dhaka to the north and south of the entrance respectively have faded.

Corridor: The centre of the ceiling has a preaching scene drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows floral designs of round petalled lotus in the centre; garlands and decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas painted in High Tang adorn the four slopes. The niche on the west wall shelters a Buddha statue cast in High Tang. On the south wall is a scene of á¡kyamuni preaching, painted in Middle Tang; to its east and west are the portraits of Avalokite¿vara and KÀitigarbha respectively; a painting of five bodhisattvas drawn in the Five Dynasties is seen below. Seven Buddhas painted during Middle Tang occupy the north wall; the lower portion of the wall has a preaching scene with Avalokite¿vara to the east and a bodhisatttva to the west. To the north of the entrance on the east wall are figures of an eleven-headed and six-armed Avalokite¿vara, a bodhisattva, KÀitigarbha and a female donor drawn in High Tang; to the south are the figures of Avalokite¿vara, BhaiÀajyaguru Buddha, a female donor and a donor bhikÀu drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Cave No. 33

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during Middle Tang, the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The ceiling was painted with numerous miniature Buddhas in the Five Dynasties of which only five are extant.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling shows floral designs; hovering on the four sides are sixteen flying figures; miniature Buddhas are seen on the four slopes. The niche on the west wall contains seven Buddha statues cast in Qing. Adorning the south wall is an illustration of the Maitreya-S£tra, below it are six donors painted in High Tang. The north wall shows miniature Buddhas with a preaching scene in the centre. To the south of the entrance on the east wall is the portrait of a bhikÀu drawn during the Five Dynasties; pictures of KÀitigarbha and a bodhisattva painted during Middle Tang; to the north of the entrance is another bhikÀu figure painted during the Five Dynasties, and a portrait of Avalokite¿vara drawn in Middle Tang.

Cave No. 34

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties, Song and Qing Dynasties).

Contents: Ante-room: The west slope of the ceiling has floral designs drawn in Song; the inner layer of coating on the south side reveals a bodhisattva painted in the Five Dynasties. Above the entrance of the west wall are seven Buddhas one of which is erased; to the south of the entrance the inner layer of wall coating reveals a portrait of Avalokite¿vara drawn in the Five Dynasties; to the north is a painting of a bodhisattva (blurred). The inner layer of the south wall reveals a portrait of Vai¿rava¸a drawn in the Five Dynasties, the surface layer illustrates the S£tra of Maµju¿r¢ painted in Song. The inner layer of the north wall reveals a picture of the western devar¡ja painted in the Five Dynasties, the north and south walls have two bodhisattvas each.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows dragons in the centre; the four slopes show circular lines, floral motifs and chess-board patterns. The niche on the west wall has a statue of a crossed-legged sitting Buddha cast in Tang; both the north and south walls have illustrations of the Sukh¡vat¶-S£tra. Two flying figures are seen above the entrance of the east wall, to both the north and south of the entrance are eight bodhisattvas listening to the dharma.

Cave No. 35

Period of Construction: The Five Dynasties (renovated in Song).

Contents: Corridor: The ceiling portrays eleven-headed and eight-armed Avalokite¿vara. Both the north and south walls are decorated with two bodhisattvas attending sermon drawn in Song.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows coiled dragons in the centre; the four slopes have floral motifs, circular lines, floral and chess-board patterns, and decorative hangings. The niche on the west wall contains a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne painted with thirteen Buddhas, halos and flowers. Ten rows of miniature Buddhas are drawn on both the north and south walls. Above the entrance of the east wall is a painting of Aupap¡daka Buddha born from lotus, and ten rows of miniature Buddhas on both the north and south sides of the entrance.

Cave No. 36

Period of Construction: The Five Dynasties. (The cave was originally the ante-room of Cave No. 35.)

Contents: Corridor: The north and south walls have portraits of two attending bodhisattvas.

Main Hall: There are three preaching scenes on the ceiling; on the south of the west wall are four N¡gar¡jas attending the sermon; below it is the portrait of a donor; on the north are four N¡gar¡jas and their families attending the sermon and below it are six donors. Fragments of a portrait of Samantabhadra painted on the north wall and Maµju¿r¢ on the south wall.

Cave No. 37

Period of Construction: Western Xia.

Contents: Ante-room: The west and north walls have remains of a painting drawn during Western Xia.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling is decorated with four-petalled flowers in the centre; designs of four-petalled flowers on the four slopes. The west, north and south walls are painted with flowers. One corner of the south wall is damaged.

Cave No. 38

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Western Xia).

Contents: Ante-room: The ceiling shows chess-board and floral patterns drawn in Western Xia; a portion of a painting on the north wall drawn in the Five Dynasties is revealed by scraping the surface layer. Decorative hangings are painted in the space above the entrance on the west wall; to the north of the entrance the inner layer shows remains of a devar¡ja; the surface layer shows fragments of a bodhisattva painted in Western Xia, fragments of another bodhisattva figure also painted in Western Xia are seen to the south of the entrance.

Corridor: Art designs on the ceiling with fragments of two bodhisattvas on both the north and south walls.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling is damaged. There are circular lines, flower clusters, chess-board and floral patterns on the four slopes; seen on the ceiling of the niche on the west wall are four flying figures and a bodhi-ratna canopy. The top portion of the south wall has decorative hangings, the middle portion shows á¡kyamuni preaching the dharma and the inner layer reveals a portion of landscape sketches without colouring drawn in High Tang; the north wall also has a á¡kyamuni. The top portion of the east wall has decorative hangings; above the entrance are seven Buddhas and to the north and south of the entrance is a scene of á¡kyamuni preaching.

Cave No. 39

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties, Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: To the south and north of the entrance of the west wall is a row of bodhisattvas and a preaching scene painted during Western Xia. Both the north and south walls have fragments of a preaching scene drawn in Western Xia.

Corridor: Buddhist historical legends of the vintage of the Five Dynasties are drawn on the ceiling. Three attending bodhisattvas drawn in Western Xia are on both the north and south walls.

Main Hall: The east-facing niche on the central column contains statues of a sitting Buddha and two disciples cast in Tang along with two statues repaired in Qing. The north-south- and west-facing niches contain miniature Buddhas drawn in High Tang. The niche on the west wall shelters twenty-seven statues chiselled in Tang. The niche on the south wall has three Buddha statues cast in Tang and Qing while the niche on the north wall shows three Buddhas cast in Qing. Above the entrance of the east wall are miniature Buddhas drawn in High Tang; to the south of the entrance is an illustration of Maµju¿r¢ drawn in the Five Dynasties with two donor bhikÀus painted below; to the north is an illustration of Samantabhadra painted during the Five Dynasties; four donor bhikÀus are seen below.

Cave No. 40

Period of Construction: The Five Dynasties.

Contents: The caisson ceiling shows floral designs in the centre; the four slopes exhibit decorative hangings, the west slope has a bodhi-ratna canopy flanked by a flying figure on both sides; the east, south and north slopes have a preaching scene each. The west wall has a Buddha statue which must have been moved from other places and two bodhisattvas. The north and south walls each have a portrayal of four bodhisattvas.

Cave No. 41

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties).

Contents: Ante-room: Five cross-legged sitting Buddhas painted in the Five Dynasties are seen above the entrance of the west wall.

Corridor: With fragments of paintings of the Five Dynasties on the ceiling and north and south walls.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows floral designs in the centre; the four slopes are covered with miniature Buddhas and decorative hangings. The ceiling of the niche on the west wall is painted with a canopy and clouds. Miniature Buddhas with a preaching scene in the centre drawn in High and Middle Tang are seen on the north and south walls respectively. Miniature Buddhas can be seen above the entrance with faded bodhisattvas on the north and south.

Cave No. 42

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties).

Contents: Corridor: An Usher Buddha drawn during the Five Dynasties is the central painting on the ceiling.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows clouds and floral designs in the centre and the four slopes are covered with miniature Buddhas and decorative hangings. Painted in the niche on the west wall are a Buddha and two bodhisattvas. The niche on the south wall shelters the statue of a sitting Buddha cast in Middle Tang. A disciple's head is the only painting not faded in the niche on the north wall. To the north and south of the entrance on the east wall are miniature Buddhas.

Cave No. 43

Period of Construction: Middle Tang.

Contents: The caisson ceiling shows floral designs in the centre; on the four slopes are faded miniature Buddhas and decorative hangings. The ceiling of the niche on the west wall has a canopy with flowers as border designs. Some remains of miniature Buddhas can be seen on the north wall.

Cave No. 44

Period of Construction: High Tang (paintings and statues being gradually completed during Middle Tang and the Five Dynasties).

Contents: Ante-room: The ceiling displays miniature Buddhas painted in Middle Tang.

Corridor: Painted on the ceiling are two devar¡jas and four bodhisattvas; an Avalokite¿vara drawn in Middle Tang is seen on both the north and south walls.

Main Hall: The east-facing niche of the central column contains two Buddha statues cast in Tang. The top portion of the west wall is covered with miniature Buddhas; the middle portion is embellished with an illustration of Nirv¡¸a-S£tra painted during Middle Tang; the lower portion is damaged. On the south wall below the slope are painted miniature Buddhas, and an illustration of the Amit¡yur-dhyna-S£tra painted during Middle Tang with Aj¡ta¿atru and sixteen meditations to the west and east respectively. On the north wall below the slope are miniature Buddhas, a painting of Sukh¡vat¢ drawn in High Tang, three portraits of Avalokite¿vara, a part of miniature Buddhas, and a portrait of Avalokite¿vara drawn in Middle Tang. Above the entrance of the east wall is inscribed an invocation, to the south of the entrance is an illustration of the Vi¿eÀacint¡brahma-parip¤cch¡-S£tra painted in Middle Tang; below it an invocation inscribed in the Five Dynasties; to the north of the entrance is an illustration of Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra drawn in Middle Tang; on its two sides are Aj¡ta¿atru and sixteen meditations; below it a painting of donor bhikÀus drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Cave No. 45

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during Middle Tang and the Five Dynasties).

Contents: Ante-room: The centre of the ceiling has a portrait of the thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokite¿vara; to the north and south are portraits of the Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara and Avalokite¿vara respectively. Above the entrance of the west wall is a painting of Vai¿rava¸a attending Nata's sermon; to the north and south of the entrance are illustrations of s£tras. In a corner of the south wall is an illustration of a s£tra. Decorating a corner of the north wall is the illustration of the Avatamsaka-S£tra. All these were drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Corridor: The ceiling is painted with Buddhist historical legends with auspicious symbols on the northern and southern slopes. A part of depictions of s£tras remains in a corner of the north and south walls.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling in the main hall shows floral designs in the centre, the four slopes are covered with decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, Ënanda, K¡¿yapa, Avalokite¿vara, Mah¡sth¡mapr¡pta together with devar¡jas from the northern and southern directions cast in High Tang. The south wall illustrates the Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-Sµutra with Aj¡ta¿atru on the east and sixteen meditations on the west drawn in High Tang. There is no painting above the entrance of the east wall; to the north of the entrance are portraits, one each of KÀitigarbha and Avalokite¿vara drawn in Middle Tang; to the south of the entrance is a painting of Avalokite¿vara drawn in High Tang.

Cave No. 46

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Song).

Contents: Ante-room: The ceiling shows chess-board and floral patterns in two rows drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Corridor: The centre of the ceiling is painted with an Usher Buddha of Song vintage. Remains of poems and compositions of Tang and the Five Dynasties scholars are on the north and south walls.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling has floral designs in the centre; seen on the four slopes are miniature Buddhas and decorative hangings. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, Ënanda, K¡¿yapa, Vir£dhaka, Vai¿rava¸a in addition to a bodhisattva which was renovated in Qing. The niche on the south wall has statues of Nirv¡¸a á¡kya, Buddha's mother, KÀitigarbha, devas and S¡riputra. The niche on the north wall contains six statues of standing Buddhas cast in Tang. The mural on the east wall has miniature Buddhas.

Cave No. 47

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties).

Contents: Corridor: The ceiling displays a cross-legged Buddha drawn in the Five Dynasties; the paintings on the north and south walls are blurred.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows camellia designs in the centre; garlands and hanging curtains are on the four slopes. Also on each of the slopes is a bodhisattva preaching the dharma flanked by other bodhisattvas listening to the sermon. The ceiling of the niche on the west wall shows a canopy and two flying figures. The south wall depicts Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara (with twelve arms), and the north wall depicts Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara, both drawn in the Five Dynasties; with a bodhisattva each to the north and south of the entrance on the east wall.

Cave No. 48

Period of Construction: High Tang.

Contents: The four slopes of the ceiling are covered with miniature Buddhas, the ceiling of the niche on the west wall illustrates the Chapter on the St£pa sandarsan parivartana. Remains of miniature Buddhas are above the entrance of the east wall.

Cave No. 49

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during Middle Tang and the Five Dynasties).

Contents: Ante-room: Fragments of a painting of the Five Dynasties remain on the ceiling.

Corridor: An Usher Buddha painted on the ceiling and a sitting Buddha on both the slopes (that on the southern slope is destroyed).

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows clouds and floral designs in the centre, the four slopes have decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas, the ceiling of the niche on the west wall has the Chapter on St£pa sandarsan parivartana; miniature Buddhas can be seen on the south wall. A preaching scene forms the central painting on the north wall and it is surrounded on the four sides by fragments of miniature Buddhas. Above the entrance of the east wall is a painting of Buddha and two bodhisattvas, drawn in Middle Tang; and remains of miniature Buddhas to the north and south of the entrance.

Cave No. 50

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during Western Xia).

Contents: The centre of the ceiling is damaged; the four slopes have decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall shows a canopy and two flying figures. Above the entrance of the east wall are remains of miniature Buddhas.

 

Cave Nos. [ 1 - 50   |  51 - 100  |  101 - 150  |  151 - 200  |  201 - 250 ]

[ 251 - 300   |  301 - 350  |  351 - 400  |  401 - 450  |  451 - 492 ]

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