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DUNHUANG ART


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Cave Nos. [ 1 - 50   |  51 - 100  |  101 - 150  |  151 - 200  |  201 - 250 ]

[ 251 - 300   |  301 - 350  |  351 - 400  |  401 - 450  |  451 - 492 ]


A Glimpse of the Mogao Caves

 

Cave No. 51

Period of Construction: Early Tang (renovated during Western Xia).

Contents: The inner layer of the caisson ceiling was painted in Early Tang. The inner layer of the four slopes was painted with miniature Buddhas in Early Tang, while the surface layer was painted with a Buddha and two bodhisattvas in Western Xia. The west wall of the niche on the slope of the west wall has fragments of a sitting áˇkyamuni drawn in Early Tang. This cave was discovered in 1947.

Cave No. 52

Period of Construction: High Tang.

Contents: The caisson ceiling is blurred in the centre. On the four slopes are the decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas (partly damaged). This cave was discovered in 1947.

Cave No. 53

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties).

Contents: Ante-room: A corner of the ceiling reveals a painting drawn in Middle Tang. To the north and south of the entrance on the west wall is a bodhisattva drawn in Middle Tang. Devarˇjas drawn in Middle Tang decorate the north and south walls. All are damaged.

Corridor: The south wall shows remains of a landscape.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling has coiled-dragon and round petalled lotus designs in the centre; decorative hangings and floral motifs are drawn on the four slopes. The west slope illustrates the Paradise of Maitreya; the south and north slopes illustrate Avatamsaka-SŁtra; the east slope illustrates the Devatˇ-SŁtra. All these are paintings of the Five Dynasties; Buddhas of the ten directions attending the sermon are shown below and miniature Buddhas drawn in Middle Tang. The niche on the west wall contains a Buddha statue and horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne cast in the Five Dynasties. The west portion of the south wall shows the fight between Sˇriputra and RaudrˇkŔa painted in the Five Dynasties; the east portion shows a painting from Middle Tang. The top portion of the north wall has an illustration of the Vimalak˘rti-nirdeża-SŁtra drawn in the Five Dynasties. Cave No. 469 is inside the eastern part of the north wall. To the north and south of the east wall entrance are donor bhikŔus. This cave was discovered in January, 1948.

Cave No. 54

Period of Construction: Late Tang.

Contents: The south and west slopes of the ceiling have miniature Buddhas with a cross-legged Buddha sitting in the centre. The north slope has remains of a painting of miniature Buddhas. The Buddha statues in the niche on the west wall are damaged; only three seats and a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne remain. The south wall has a portrait of the thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokiteżvara, to the east and west are shown the twelve great vows and nine inauspicious deaths respectively; below them are two male donors. The north wall features thousand-armed Maµjużr˘ with a bowl in each hand. On the two sides are illustrations of the Chapter on Universal Gate of Avalokiteżvara-SŁtra; with two male donors below. To the south of the entrance on the east wall is a portrait of the Cintˇma¸i-Cakra Avalokiteżvara with three male donors below; to the north of the entrance is a bodhisattva. This cave was discovered in 1948.

Cave No. 55

Period of Construction: Song Dynasty (renovated during Western Xia).

Contents: Ante-room: Wall paintings have faded.

Corridor: Art designs drawn in Western Xia are in the centre of the ceiling; garland-and petal- throwing flying angels are on the northern and southern slopes.

Main Hall: The central altar features three sitting Buddhas, three bodhisattvas, Kˇżyapa, two warriors, a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne. The west side of the Buddha altar is not painted. Flaming pearls and lions are seen on the north and south of the altar. The caisson ceiling shows a coiled dragon and round petals of lotus in the centre, the four slopes show the decorative hangings with heavenly musicians hovering on all sides. The west, south, north and east slopes have illustrations of the Paradise of Maitreya, Saddharma-pu¸·ar˘ka-SŁtra, Avatamsaka-SŁtra, and the La¸kˇvatˇra-SŁtra respectively. The north-east, south-east, south-west and north-west corners have portraits of the Eastern Devarˇja Dh¤tarˇstra, Southern Devarˇja VirŁdhaka, Western Devarˇja VirŁpˇkŔa and Northern Devarˇja Vaiżrava¸a respectively. On the south wall east-westwards are illustrations of the Maitreya-SŁtra, Amitˇyur-dhyˇna-SŁtra, SŁtra for Redemption from Indebtedness, Avalokiteżvara-SŁtra; below them is a twelve-panel screen with drawings of nine chapters of the SŁtra of the Wise and the Foolish. The west wall illustrates the fight between Sˇriputra and RaudrˇkŔa with a fourteen-panel screen below it painted with chapters of the SŁtra for the Wise and the Foolish on nine panels and chapters of Brahma. On the north wall east-westwards are illustrations of the Sarvadurgati-pariżodhana-uŔ¸i-savijayadhˇran˘. Above the entrance on the east wall is a painting of seven Buddhas, a bodhisattva, an Aupapˇdaka and two flying figures. To the south of the entrance is an illustration of the Suvar¸aprabhˇsa-SŁtra; to its north is an illustration of the GhanavyŁha SŁtra flanked by the explanation of laws on either side; six attending bodhisattvas drawn in Western Xia are seen below.

Cave No. 56

Period of Construction: Sui Dynasty.

Contents: The ceiling is damaged due to fumigation. The four slopes have miniature Buddhas, the lower level of each slope shows a row of flying figures. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of Buddha, Ënanda, Kˇżyapa and three bodhisattvas. The niche on the south wall contains a statue of a meditating Buddha; on both sides four statues are missing and only the halos remain. The niche on the north wall has remains of two flying figures and five halos; portraits of miniature Buddha decorate the east wall. The southern corner was damaged during Qing.

Cave No. 57

Period of Construction: Early Tang (renovated in Late Tang).

Contents: Ante-room: Above the entrance of the west wall is a scene of Maitreya preaching the law drawn in Late Tang; on its two sides are devarˇjas attending the sermon; to the north and south of the entrance are portraits of Vaiżrava¸a and VirŁdhaka respectively.

Corridor: The ceiling was renovated in Late Tang featuring a depiction of the BhaiŔajyaguru-SŁtra on top and four sitting Buddhas on both the northern and southern slopes.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling has two dragons and lotus designs in the centre; the four slopes have miniature Buddhas, decorative hangings and flying figures hovering all over. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, two disciples and four bodhisattvas. The mural on the south wall shows miniature Buddhas with a preaching scene in the centre; a row of donors is seen below. The north wall is similar to the south wall. Above the entrance of the east wall are miniature Buddhas. Seven Buddhas drawn in Early Tang is destroyed. To the north and south of the entrance are miniature Buddhas with a preaching scene in the centre.

Cave No. 58

Period of Construction: Early Tang (renovated during Song).

Contents: Corridor: The ceiling shows lotus flower designs; attending bodhisattvas on the south wall have faded.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows floral designs in the centre; the four slopes are covered with garlands and hanging curtains, with a flying figure on the north, south and east slopes. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha and two bodhisattvas. The north and south walls have a preaching scene each. Above the entrance of the east wall is a preaching scene; an attending bodhisattva is seen on both the north and south sides of the entrance.

Cave No. 59

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during Song).

Contents: Corridor: The ceiling features a Buddha and two bodhisattvas painted in Song. Donors also drawn in Song on the north and the south walls have faded.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling has lotus in the centre. Miniature Buddhas and decorative hangings are on the four slopes. The niche on the west wall contains statues of Buddha and two disciples cast in Sui. Remains of miniature Buddhas are seen on the south wall. The top portion of the north wall also has miniature Buddhas; below them are two faded bodhisattvas drawn in Song. Above the entrance of the east wall and on its two sides are miniature Buddhas. Below it on the north is a bodhisattva.

Cave No. 60

Period of Construction: Early Tang.

Contents: The ceiling shows light rings in the centre. The four slopes exhibit decorative hangings; miniature Buddhas are on the north, south and west slopes. The ceiling of the niche on the west wall has two flying figures. The top portion of the north and south walls has a row of miniature Buddhas; the middle portion has a preaching scene, the lower portion of the south wall shows ten female donors while the north wall shows some donors of whom only one is unimpaired.

Cave No. 61

Period of Construction: The Five Dynasties (renovated in Yuan).

Contents: Corridor: The top and southern and northern slopes of the ceiling are painted with art designs. The south wall features a Buddha while the north wall is painted with celestial deities and female musicians.

Main Hall: The statues in the central altar are missing, only a lion's tail remains. A horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne is also seen on the altar; a canopy of bodhi-ratna, bodhisattvas, devarˇjas, warriors is painted on the back screen, with a standing Buddha painted on its reverse side. Portraits of Cintˇma¸i-Cakra Avalokiteżvara and Amoghapˇża Avalokiteżvara are painted on the south and north sides of the back screen. The ceiling shows coiled dragons and parrots in the centre. The four slopes are painted with decorative hangings; the top portion of the four slopes shows Buddhas of the ten directions while the lower portion is covered by miniature Buddhas; below the miniature Buddhas on the west slope are six flying figures, two attending bodhisattvas; on the south slope, miniature Buddhas flock a Divyadundubhimeghanir-ghoŔa Buddha in the centre. On the north slope, the miniature Buddhas flock a ”Sarvadurga-music- Buddha“ in the centre. On the east, the miniature Buddhas flock an eastern AkŔobhya Buddha in the centre. On the south wall from west to east are the illustrations of the La´kˇvatˇra-SŁtra, Maitreya-SŁtra, Amitˇbha-SŁtra, Saddharma-pu¸·ar˘ka-SŁtra, SŁtra for Redemption from Indebtedness; below these paintings, from east to west are seventeen female donors from the Cao family and a nine-panel screen; a map of Mount Wutai is on the west wall; below it is a fifteen-panel screen. On the north wall west-eastward are the illustrations of the GhanavyŁha-SŁtra, Devatˇ-SŁtra, BhaiŔajyaguru-SŁtra, Avatamsaka-SŁtra, ViżeŔacintˇbrahma-parip¤cchˇ-SŁtra; below it is a painting of a nine-panel screen which illustrates west-eastward a scene of Siddhartha leaving his palace at mid-night, and sixteen female donors of the Cao family. Above the enterance of the eaast wall is an illustration of Vimalak˘rti nirdeża-SŁtra with a chapter from Buddhaloka, to the north and south of the enterance are the illustrations of the Vimalak˘rti nirdeża-SŁtra with Vimalak˘rti on the north and Maµjużr˘ on the south. This cave was earlier known as "Wenshutang" (Temple of Maµjużr˘).

Cave No. 62

Period of Construction: Sui Dynasty.

Contents: The east and west sides of the ceiling are covered with miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall has a halo, the north and the south walls have a devakanyˇ and two flying figures each. The south wall and the top portion of the north wall have miniature Buddhas, the middle portion shows a preaching scene and painted at the bottom portion are eleven male and four female donors. Miniature Buddhas are seen on the east wall. This cave was damaged at the time of hewing Cave No. 61.

Cave No. 63

Period of Construction: Sui Dynasty.

Contents: The ceiling shows lotus in the centre; seen on the four slopes are the miniature Buddhas and decorative hangings. The niche on the west wall displays a flying figure with halo. The mural on the south wall shows miniature Buddhas. This cave was damaged at the time of hewing Cave No. 61.

Cave No. 64

Period of Construction: Sui Dynasty.

Contents: Decorative hangings on the ceiling. A preaching scene on the west slope, the north and south slopes show flying figures and a Buddha attending sermon. The statue in the niche on the west wall is missing, only throne remains. The mural on the south wall shows a preaching scene, two bodhisattvas and a flying figure; painted below are two donors.

Cave No. 65

Period of Construction: Tang Dynasty (renovated in Song, Western Xia and Qing Dynasties).

Contents: The caisson ceiling has coiled dragons in the centre. The four slopes have circular lines, floral motifs and chess-board patterns. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a Buddha, two disciples and two bodhisattva statues cast in Western Xia. The north and south walls are painted with decorative hangings on the top level; the middle level shows a preaching scene from west to east; the lower level is damaged. Decorative hangings are drawn above the entrance of the east wall; there are paintings of canopies and bodhisattvas to the north and south of the entrance.

Cave No. 66

Period of Construction: High Tang.

Contents: The caisson ceiling is damaged but there are remains of cloud and floral designs in the centre; the four slopes have miniature Buddhas and decorative hangings partially damaged. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, Kˇżyapa, Ënanda, two bodhisattvas and two devarˇjas. The north and south walls have illustrations of the Amitˇyur-dhyˇna-SŁtra and Sukhˇvat¶-SŁtra respectively. Remains of miniature Buddhas are seen on the north side of the entrance on the east wall.

Cave No. 67

Period of Construction: Early Tang.

Contents: The west slope of the ceiling has the chess-board and floral designs (blurred). On the west there is a Buddha statue cast in Tang and repaired later and the halo on the wall was drawn in Song; the north and south walls have a sŁtra illustration each. To the north of the entrance on the east wall, traces of an Early Tang painting are seen on the inner layer.

Cave No. 68

Period of Construction: Early Tang.

Contents: The south, west and north slopes of the ceiling show fragments of miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a Buddha, two disciples and two bodhisattvas; sŁtra illustrations adorn the north and south walls (damaged).

Cave No. 69

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (renovated during Western Xia).

Contents: The caisson ceiling has dragon designs in the centre with the four slopes showing a preaching scene and decorative hangings. The niche on the west wall has statues of a Buddha, two disciples and two bodhisattvas repaired in Western Xia; each of the north and the south walls has two sŁtra illustrations. There is a preaching scene to the north of the entrance on the east wall.

Cave No. 70

Period of Construction: Early Tang (painting redone during Western Xia and stucco statues renovated during Qing).

Contents: The centre of the caisson ceiling has pomegranates and grapes drawn in Early Tang. The four slopes have chess-board and floral designs painted in Western Xia. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a sitting Buddha, three Buddhas and a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne cast in Early Tang. The top portion of the north and south walls shows decorative hangings, the middle portion has two paintings of the Sukhˇvat¶-SŁtra and ten alms-offering bodhisattvas and the lower level shows miniature Buddhas with a preaching scene in the centre drawn in Early Tang. The mural on the lower portion of the east wall is drawn in Early Tang too.

Cave No. 71

Period of Construction: Early Tang.

Contents: The four slopes of the ceiling have miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, Ënanda, Kˇżyapa and two bodhisattvas. The south and north walls illustrate Maitreya-SŁtra and Amitˇbha-SŁtra respectively.

Cave No. 72

Period of Construction: The Five Dynasties (the stucco statues being renovated during Qing).

Contents: The centre of the caisson ceiling is damaged. The four slopes show circular lines, floral motifs, garlands and decorative hangings. Each of the four slopes has three paintings of Buddha attending sermon, below which are miniature Buddhas with the preaching scene in the centre. The niche on the west wall contains statues of Buddha, two disciples and two bodhisattvas carved in the Five Dynasties. The top portion of south wall is full of decorative hangings; the middle portion has a portrait of sage Liu Sahe. The top portion of north wall is also covered with decorative hangings; the middle portion has an illustration of the Maitreya-SŁtra. Decorative hangings are painted above the entrance of the east wall, to the north and south of the entrance is a portion of the scene of the fight between Sˇriputra and RaudrˇkŔa.

Cave No. 73

Period of Construction: Song Dynasty.

Contents: The ceiling has the floral motifs as border designs. The south and west slopes have remains of miniature Buddhas and decorative hangings. The west wall has remains of a sŁtra illustration. This cave is north facing.

Cave No. 74

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated in the Five Dynasties).

Contents: Ante-room: The west and north walls have murals drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling has lotus designs in the centre; garlands and decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas cover the four slopes. The ceiling of the niche on the west wall shows chess-board patterns. The south wall is decorated with miniature Buddhas, the north wall shows a sŁtra illustration and to the north of the entrance on the east wall are remains of the portraits of KŔitigarbha and Avalokiteżvara.

Cave No. 75

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated in Late Tang).

Contents: The ceiling shows floral designs in the centre; the four slopes show decorative hangings, floral motifs and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall contains paintings of a standing Buddha, a bodhisattva and KŔitigarbha drawn in Late Tang. The south and north walls miniature Buddhas are seen, with a preaching scene in the centre of the north wall. On the south, an altar was built in Late Tang with a Sui statue shifted from elsewhere installed on it. There are also High Tang statues of Ënanda, two bodhisattvas inside the altar and female donors painted in Late Tang beneath it. Three preaching scenes are painted above the entrance of the east wall, to the north and south of the entrance are portraits of a standing Buddha and a BhaiŔajyaguru Buddha respectively.

Cave No. 76

Period of Construction: Tang (renovated during Song, Yuan and Qing).

Contents: Corridor: The surface of the ceiling shows an Usher Buddha. The south slope shows decorative hangings all drawn in Yuan. The inner layer has screens painted in Song; the north wall surface has fragments of decorative hangings drawn in Yuan, the inner layer has a screen painted in Song with garlands and hanging curtains as border designs drawn in Tang. The surface layer on the south wall shows a bodhisattva drawn in Yuan while the inner layer has a screen painted in Song. The north wall has the same features as the south wall with remains of a Tang painting in a corner.

Main Hall: The central altar has the statue of a cross-legged preaching Buddha cast in Song. Below the Buddha throne is a portrait of attending bodhisattva drawn during Song. Ten flying figures occupy the top portion of the south wall, at the lower level west-eastwards are illustrations of the Amitˇyur-dhyˇna-SŁtra, Avalokiteżvara-SŁtra and Saddharma-pu¸·ar˘ka-SŁtra. Along the top of the north wall are ten flying figures, below which from west to east are illustrations of the BhaiŔajyaguru-SŁtra, eleven-headed Avalokiteżvara and the Avatamsaka-SŁtra. The top portion of the east wall features ten flying figures with pagodas drawn on the entrance.

Cave No. 77

Period of Construction: Early Tang (renovated during Qing).

Contents: The ceiling shows floral designs in the centre; the four slopes are adorned with decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The horse-hoof shaped altar of west wall contains statues of a sitting Buddha, two disciples in addition to the remains of four thrones. On the north and south walls west-eastwards are two bodhisattvas and a faded preaching scene.

Cave No. 78

Period of Construction: Early Tang (renovated during Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: Corridor: The ceiling has the remains of Western Xia floral designs in a corner.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows coiled dragon designs in the centre while the four slopes have circular lines, floral motifs, and chess-board and floral designs drawn during Western Xia. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a sitting Buddha, two disciples and two bodhisattvas cast in Tang. The south wall has two sŁtra illustrations drawn during Western Xia. The inner layer reveals a depiction of Amitˇbha-SŁtra painted during Early Tang. The north wall shows two sµutra illustrations drawn in Western Xia and the inner layer reveals the Maitreya-SŁtra also drawn in Early Tang. The inner layer above the entrance on the east wall shows seven Buddhas drawn in Early Tang; on both the north and south of the entrance is a portrait of Avalokiteżvara.

Cave No. 79

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties).

Contents: Ante-room: The west slope of the ceiling shows three standing Buddhas drawn in High Tang. A niche above the entrance of the west wall is destroyed. On both the north and south of the entrance there is a faded painting of Vajra warriors drawn during High Tang. The west side of the south wall has fragments of a portrait of the thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokiteżvara drawn also in High Tang, the east has a sŁtra illustration drawn in the Five Dynasties. The west side of the north wall has fragments of a portrait of Rocana Buddha painted in High Tang, the east section has fragments of paintings of the Five Dynasties.

Corridor: With fragments of portraits of donors.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling has floral designs in the centre; the four slopes have decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a Buddha, two disciples, four bodhisattvas cast in High Tang. The north and south walls are covered with miniature Buddhas drawn in High Tang. Above the entrance of the east wall is a damaged preaching scene painted during the Five Dynasties; to the north and south of the entrance are miniature Buddhas painted during High Tang (the lower portions are destroyed).

Cave No. 80

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties).

Contents: The ceiling has three cross-legged sitting Buddhas; the four slopes show miniature Buddhas. Miniature Buddhas are on the south and west walls drawn in High Tang and on the north wall drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Cave No. 81

Period of Construction: Tang (paintings being redrawn in Western Xia and the stucco statues being repainted in Qing).

Contents: Corridor: The south wall shows traces of the figure of a bodhisattva drawn in Western Xia.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling has the dharma-cakra painted in the centre; chess-board and floral designs adorn the four slopes. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a Buddha, two disciples and two bodhisattvas cast in Tang. A horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne is also seen in the niche. The top portion of both the north and south walls is painted with decorative hangings; the middle portion shows two illustrations of the Sukhˇvat˘-SŁtra and the lower portion is damaged. Above the entrance on the east wall is a painting of two sitting Buddhas; a preaching scene is painted on each of the north and south sides of the entrance.

Cave No. 82

Period of Construction: Late Tang.

Contents: The ceiling has floral designs in the centre; circular lines, decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas can be seen on the four slopes. The ceiling of the niche on the west wall also shows floral designs in the centre; the four slopes are covered with miniature Buddhas. Each of the south and the north walls has a damaged portrait of Amoghapˇża Avalokiteżvara and the thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokiteżvara respectively.

Cave No. 83

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties, Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: Traces of illustration of the Samantabhadra-SŁtra drawn in the Five Dynasties can be seen to the north of the entrance of the west wall.

Corridor: The inner layer of the north wall reveals Cintˇma¸i-Cakra Avalokiteżvara.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows coiled dragon designs in the centre; the four slopes have the circular lines, floral motifs, chess-board and floral designs. The niche on the west wall contains five Buddha statues cast in Qing. The north and south walls illustrate the Sukhˇvat˘; the west end shows two Buddhas, the lower level shows flowers. Above the entrance and to the north and south of it, are three preaching scenes.

Cave No. 84

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Western Xia).

Contents: Ante-room: The north side of the entrance on the west wall and the lower portion of the north wall both have fragments of paintings drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Corridor: A damaged Usher Buddha in the centre of the ceiling, with bhikŔus drawn in the Five Dynasties on the north wall.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows a dharma-cakra in the centre; the four slopes have circular lines, floral motifs, chess-board and floral designs. Painted on the ceiling of the niche on the west wall are a bodhi-ratna canopy and two flying figures. The top portion of the north and south walls has decorative hangings drawn in Western Xia, the middle portion shows an illustration of Sukhˇvat˘-SŁtra, drawing in the lower portion of which is damaged. The space above the east wall is painted with decorative hangings and two bodhisattvas; on the south of it two and on the north three attending bodhisattvas (damaged).

Cave No. 85

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated in the Five Dynasties, Yuan and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: To the south and north of the entrance on the west wall are portraits of Maµjużr˘ and Samantabhadra, both drawn in Yuan but severely damaged.

Corridor: The ceiling features miniature Buddhas sitting on lotus, the north and south slopes have auspicious symbols. On the north wall is the portrait of the Late Tang monk Zhai Sengrong with three donors and one attendant first painted in Late Tang, repainted in the Five Dynasties. The south wall features three male donors and seven attendants also first drawn in Late Tang and repainted in the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The central altar contains statues of áˇkya Buddha, Kˇżyapa cast in Late Tang and a statue of Ënanda cast in Qing. The ceiling has lion and lotus designs in the centre. The four slopes have floral motifs and decorative hangings. The west, south, north and east slopes illustrate the Maitreya-SŁtra, Saddharma-pu¸·ar˘ka-SŁtra, AvataĹsaka-SŁtra and LaĆkˇvatˇra-SŁtra respectively. On the south wall east-westwards are illustrations of the Sµutra for Redemption from Indebtedness, Amitˇbha-SŁtra, Vajracchedikˇ-SŁtra; seen at the bottom is a fourteen-panel screen with depictions of sŁtras on the panel. The west wall has a scene of the fight between Sˇriputra and RaudrˇkŔa; below it a fourteen-panel screen illustrating the Sµutra for the Wise and the Foolish. On the north wall west-eastwards are illustrations of the GhanavyŁha-SŁtra, BhaiŔajyaguru-SŁtra and ViżeŔacintˇbrahma-parip¤cchˇ-SŁtra; at the lower level is a fourteen-panel screen with sµutra illustrations. Illustrated above the entrance of the east wall is a chapter of the Suvar¸a-prabhˇsa-SŁtra; on the south is another illustration of the same sŁtra, below are five donor bhikŔun˘s; the north side illustrates the Vimalak˘rti-nirdeża-SŁtra; three bhikŔus and three female donors at the lower level.

Cave No. 86

Period of Construction: The Five Dynasties.

Contents: The ceiling has floral designs and the four slopes show decorative hangings. Seen on the west wall are Buddha halo and disciples; bodhisattvas adorn the north and south walls. All are damaged or faded.

Cave No. 87

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties, Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: The centre of the ceiling has cross-cudgels and floral designs painted in Western Xia. The four slopes have circular lines and floral motifs with a painting drawn in High Tang on the inner layer. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a sitting Buddha, two disciples, two bodhisattvas and one devarˇja cast in High Tang. Inside the niche all the walls are covered by paintings of High Tang and the Five Dynasties, among them are four figures belonging to the eight supernatural categories (devˇs, dragons etc.) on both the northern and southern sides. The top portion of the north and the south walls is painted with decorative hangings drawn in Western Xia; Sukhˇvat˘-SŁtra is illustrated in the middle portion while the lower portion is destroyed. The east wall shows a painting of bodhisattvas drawn in Western Xia which has fallen off.

Cave No. 88

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: The ceiling has round petalled lotus designs in the centre; the four slopes show circular lines, floral motifs, chess-board and floral designs; below it are decorative hangings (damaged). The niche on the west wall contains statues of cross-legged sitting Buddha, Ënanda and Kˇżyapa all cast in High Tang. The north wall illustrates the BhaiŔajyaguru-SŁtra and the south wall, the Amitˇbha-SŁtra.

Cave No. 89

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated in Song).

Contents: The west and north slopes of the ceiling have in a corner remains of circular lines and floral motifs with decorative hangings all faded. The ceiling inside the niche of the west wall shows a bodhi-ratna canopy and two flying figures. The inner layer of the north and south walls reveals High Tang paintings but the painting on the surface layer was drawn in Song (faded).

Cave No. 90

Period of Construction: The Five Dynasties.

Contents: In a corner of the west wall are fragments of a devarˇja, and two donors.

Cave No. 91

Period of Construction: High and Middle Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties).

Contents: Ante-room: Cave No. 90 is situated to the north of the entrance on the west wall.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows floral designs in the centre; the four slopes have floral motifs, decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of sitting Buddha, two disciples and two bodhisattvas cast in Tang. Outside the niche are two devarˇja statues. An illustration of the Amitˇyur-dhyˇna-SŁtra with Ajˇtażatru to the east and sixteen meditations to the west is seen on the south wall. The illustration on the north wall is about Maitreya-SŁtra; the east and the west sides have an illustration of the World of Maitreya. A portrait of Vaiżrava¸a is seen to the north of the entrance on the east wall. This cave was hewn around the eleventh year of the Dali Era of Tang (777).

Cave No. 92

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (the stucco statues renovated in Qing).

Contents: The ceiling has lotus designs in the centre; the four slopes show floral motifs and decorative hangings; the north and west slopes have an illustration of the Nirvˇ¸a-SŁtra, the north slope shows Sˇriputra. The niche on the west wall shelters a statue of cross-legged sitting Buddha. The south wall has an illustration of the Amitˇyur-dhyˇna-SŁtra with the sixteen meditations to the east and Ajˇtażatru to the west. The north wall has an illustration of the BhaiŔajyaguru-SŁtra with the twelve great vows to the east and nine inauspicious deaths to the west; below it a painting of female donors drawn in the Five Dynasties. The north and south sides of the entrance on the east wall illustrate the Maµjużr˘-SŁtra and Samantabhadra-SŁtra respectively.

Cave No. 93

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (the stucco statues renovated in Qing).

Contents: The centre of the ceiling is damaged. The three slopes of north, south and west show floral motifs and decorative hangings; the west slope has miniature Buddhas with a cross-legged sitting bodhisattva in the centre; the north and the south slopes have miniature Buddhas with a cross-legged sitting Buddha in the centre. The niche on the west wall contains three statues cast in Tang and four statues cast in Qing. There is a fragment of a sŁtra illustration in one corner of the south wall with a Buddha portrait standing on the western side. On the north wall there is an illustration of the Maitreya-SŁtra; on the west side again a standing Buddha.

Cave No. 94

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated during Song and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The space above the entrance of the west wall has fragments of Late Tang paintings, recognizable are devarˇjas and warriors.

Corridor: The central painting of the ceiling shows floral patterns painted in Song while the north and south slopes have decorative hangings. The top portion on the south wall is painted with five sets of Buddhas of ten directions drawn also in Song; the middle portion shows a picture of eight attending bodhisattvas; the inner layer reveals Zhang Yitan's inscription. The north wall has same features as the south wall with Zhang Yichao's inscription revealed on the inner layer.

Main Hall: The central altar has a statue of a sitting Buddha preaching the law cast in Song along with statues of disciples, two bodhisattvas and Laozi the Taoist patriarch, cast in Qing. The right side of the screen shows the bodhi-ratna canopy, with two flying figures and two bodhisattvas; the rear side shows paintings of an Usher Buddha; each of the north and south sides has a figure of an attending bodhisattva; all above three items were Song drawings. The ceiling shows the coiled dragon designs in the centre; the four slopes have the floral motifs, decorative hangings, chess-board and floral patterns. The top section of the west wall has flying figures drawn in Song; the middle portion has miniature Buddhas and the lower level shows frescoes drawn in Tang; further below an illustration of the SŁtra of the Wise and the Foolish. The north and south walls have the same paintings, at the lower level of the north wall, only the female donors vary. The top portion of the east wall has a line of flying figures; above the entrance is the drawing of a huge lotus; to the north and south are the figures of miniature Buddhas and the inner layer reveals fragments of donors painted in Tang.

Cave No. 95

Period of Construction: Yuan (renovated during Qing).

Contents: Corridor: Painted on the ceiling are floral designs and a six-word mantra.

Main Hall: The east-facing niche in the main hall contains statues of a devarˇja and two bodhisattvas with the six-armed Avalokiteżvara as the main statue. The niche ceiling is also inscribed with a six-word mantra along with floral designs; inside the niche on the west wall is the light of Buddha with Avalokiteżvara and Mahˇsthˇmaprˇpta on both sides; the north and south walls have three bodhisattvas each; the north and south walls have two arhats facing them, while the west wall has no paintings. Outside the niche, the north, south and west walls have two, three and two figures of arhats respectively.

Cave No. 96

Period of Construction: Early Tang (renovated in Qing).

Contents: This is a famous cave of the giant sitting Maitreya statue, thirty-three metres tall, cast in Early Tang and repaired during the Republic of China.

Cave No. 97

Period of Construction: Tang (renovated during Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: The caisson ceiling has coiled dragon designs in the centre. The four slopes have the designs of pearls on rolling clouds and floral designs. The niche on the west wall contains statues of two disciples cast in Tang and statues of a Buddha, two devarˇjas cast in Qing. The niche also has a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne. The west end of the south wall has the portrait of donor bhikŔu holding a flower with sixteen arhats; below it a screen with paintings on the panels. The north wall has the same paintings as the south wall. Two of the sixteen arhats are still visible on both the northern and southern sides of the entrance on the east wall.

Cave No. 98

Period of Construction: The Five Dynasties (the stuccos being renovated during Qing).

Contents: Corridor: The ceiling shows traces of paintings of Buddhist historical legends, the south slope has six auspicious symbols, the north slope has seven. Eight donors including Cao Yijin and his son and two attendants repainted on the south wall. The north wall also shows donors.

Main Hall: The central Buddha altar contains the statue of a cross-legged sitting Buddha from the Five Dynasties and two statues from Qing. The centre of the caisson ceiling shows coiled dragons and parrots; the four slopes are painted with decorative hangings. The top portion of the four slopes has the painting of Buddhas of the ten directions attending sermon; below it are miniature Buddhas with a preaching scene in the centre. On the south wall east-westwards are illustrations of the SŁtra for Redemption from Indebtedness, Saddharma-pu¸·ar˘ka-Sµutra, Amitˇbha-SŁtra, Maitreya-SŁtra; below it are the figures of seventeen female donors from the Cao family, a thirteen-panel screen painted with the chapters of sŁtras for the Wise and the Foolish. The west wall illustrates the fight between Sˇriputra and RaudrˇkŔa; a sixteen-panel screen showing sŁtra illustrations is painted below. On the north wall from west to east are illustrations of the Devatˇ-SŁtra, BhaiŔajyaguru-SŁtra, Avatamsaka-SŁtra etc.; a thirteen-panel screen painted with the chapters from the SŁtra for the Wise and the Foolish is below. Above the entrance of the east wall is the chapter on Upˇyakaużalya from the Vimalak˘rti-nirdeża-SŁtra, to the north and south of the entrance are illustrations of the Vimalak˘rti-nirdeża-SŁtra respectively, one wall featuring Vimalak˘rti and the other Maµjużr˘. Below them are the princess of Uighur and seven male and female donors.

Cave No. 99

Period of Construction: The Five Dynasties.

Contents: The caisson ceiling is painted with lion and lotus designs, with floral and hanging curtains decorating the four slopes. The preaching scenes on the four slopes are damaged. The niche on the west wall highlights BhaiŔajyaguru, totalling eighteen portraits of him along with bodhisattvas. Inside the altar there is a sitting Buddha flanked by disciples, bodhisattvas, devarˇjas, in addition to Samantabhadra. The west wall inside the niche features halo in the centre, flanked by three disciples on each side. The north and south walls feature four bodhisattvas, two disciples and the eight categories of supernatural beings. The opening of the altar is decorated with curtains with Samantabhadra on the south and Maµjużr˘ on the north. The north wall has illustrations of the thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokiteżvara, to the east and west are scenes of Avalokiteżvara rescuing people from all calamities, and the thirty-three manifestations. Above the entrance of the east wall are paintings of three cross-legged sitting Buddhas; to the south is Amoghapˇża Avalokiteżvara, to the north is Cintˇma¸˘-Cakra Avalokiteżvara.

Cave No. 100

Period of Construction: The Five Dynasties (stucco statues renovated during Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: On both the north and south of the entrance on the west wall and also on the north and south walls is a faded portrait of a devarˇja.

Corridor: The south slope of the ceiling has two auspicious symbols. The south wall shows five donors who include Cao Yijin and his son, and six attendants. The north wall features a Uighur princess who is Cao Yijin's wife and ten female donors and five female attendants.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling has floral and round petalled lotus designs in the centre. The four slopes have decorative hangings, Buddhas of the ten directions and the miniature Buddhas with a preaching scene in the centre. Four Devarˇjas feature prominently: Dh¤tarˇstra of the eastern direction in the north-east corner, VirŁdhaka of the southern direction in the south-east corner, VirŁpˇkŔa of the western direction in the south-west corner and Vaiżrava¸a of the northern direction in the north-west corner. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a Buddha, two disciples and two warriors cast in Qing. Outside the niche and on both sides of the pedestal are statues of Maµjużr˘, Samantabhadra and a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne. On the south wall from west to east are illustrations of the SŁtra for Redemption from Indebtedness, Amitˇbha-SŁtra and Maitreya-SŁtra; at the lower level is a painting of Cao Yijin leading the march of his army. On the north wall west-eastwards are illustrations of Brahma-SŁtra, BhaiŔajyaguru-SŁtra and Devatˇ-SŁtra; below it paints the Uighur princess on her journey. The story of Vimalak˘rti-SŁtra is painted on both south and north of the entrance on the east wall; the south featuring Maµjużr˘ with Cao Yijin's army below; the north featuring Vimalak˘rti with the ending of the Uighur princess's procession featuring below. This cave is known in Dunhuang manuscript as "the cave of Cao the Great Man".

 

Cave Nos. [ 1 - 50   |  51 - 100  |  101 - 150  |  151 - 200  |  201 - 250 ]

[ 251 - 300   |  301 - 350  |  351 - 400  |  401 - 450  |  451 - 492 ]

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