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DUNHUANG ART


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Cave Nos. [ 1 - 50   |  51 - 100  |  101 - 150  |  151 - 200  |  201 - 250 ]

[ 251 - 300   |  301 - 350  |  351 - 400  |  401 - 450  |  451 - 492 ]


A Glimpse of the Mogao Caves

 

Cave No. 101

Period of Construction: High Tang.

Contents: The west slope of the ceiling has only one miniature Buddha left. The west wall has a damaged statue of á¡kyamuni, the north wall has fragments of a painting in a corner.

Cave No. 102

Period of Construction: Late Tang.

Contents: The ceiling is destroyed. Much of the fresco inside has faded. There are traces of miniature Buddhas on the north and west walls.

Cave No. 103

Period of Construction: High Tang (the stucco statues being renovated in Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: With Cave No. 105 situated inside the south wall, and Cave No. 104 inside the north wall, the west wall features fragments of a devar¡ja on the north of the entrance.

Corridor: The south wall has fragments of a portrait of KÀitigarbha while the north wall that of Vai¿rava¸a.

Main Hall: A colourful caisson ceiling with floral motifs with miniature Buddhas on the four slopes. The niche on the side of the west wall features Tang statues of a Buddha and two bodhisattvas repaired in Qing, in addition to two disciples and two bodhisattvas cast in Qing. Inside the niche are fragments of paintings of disciples and bodhisattvas with a portrait of a bodhisattva on both sides of the curtains which adorn the opening of the niche. The south wall of the cave is painted with depictions of the Saddharma-pu¸·ar¶ka-S£tra, while the north and east walls feature the Amit¡yus-S£tra and Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra respectively. The lower parts of all the three walls are damaged.

Cave No. 104

Period of Construction: Late Tang.

Contents: The ceiling is destroyed. The niche on the north wall has a Buddha statue installed inside, which was removed from Cave No. 477. This cave is situated inside the north wall of the ante-room of Cave No. 103.

Cave No. 105

Period of Construction: Late Tang (the stucco statues renovated in Qing).

Contents: The ceiling is destroyed. The niche and the south wall have a Buddha statue of Late Tang repaired in Qing. The cave is situated inside the south wall of the ante-room of Cave No. 103.

Cave No. 106

Period of Construction: Late Tang.

Contents: There is a niche on the west wall with faded floral designs and chess-board patterns in the centre on the ceiling and traces of a standing Buddha on the southern slope. To the south of the entrance one sees fragments of an illustration of the Samantabhadra-S£tra.

Cave No. 107

Period of Construction: Late Tang.

Contents: The north and west slopes of the ceiling are painted with miniature Buddhas with a cross-legged Buddha sitting in the centre (partially damaged). The south slope has miniature Buddhas which are blurred. The ceiling of the niche on the west wall shows cross-cudgels and floral designs, three sitting Buddhas can be seen on the west slope along with Aupap¡daka; the east, south and north slopes also have three sitting Buddhas each. On the south wall from west to east are illustrations of the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra, the Devat¡-S£tra, below them are seven male donors. West-eastwards on the north wall are the illustrations of the Amit¡bha-S£tra and the Maitreya-S£tra (partially destroyed); ten female donors are painted below. To the north of the entrance on the east wall is the portrait of Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara with two female donors below; to the south of the entrance is a portrait of Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara with three male donors below.

Cave No. 108

Period of Construction: The Five Dynasties (the statues being renovated during Qing).

Contents: Corridor: The centre of the ceiling preserves a half of the paintings of Buddhist historical legends. Ten pictures of auspicious figures are extant on the northern and southern slopes.

Main Hall: The central altar has statues of a sitting Buddha, two Buddha disciples and four devar¡jas cast in Qing. The caisson ceiling is damaged in the centre; the four slopes are painted with decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas; the north, south and east slopes each have a set of three paintings of Buddha attending the sermon; miniature Buddhas with a preaching scene in the centre are below the three Buddhas. On the south wall from east to west are illustrations of the S£tra for Redemption from Indebtedness, Saddharma-pu¸·ar¢ka-S£tra, Amit¡bha-S£tra, and Maitreya-S£tra; below it are ten donors, four females and a six-panel screen with paintings of the S£tra for the Wise and the Foolish; the west wall illustrates the fight between S¡riputra and Raudr¡kÀa; on the north wall from west to east are illustrations of BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra, Avatamsaka-S£tra, Devat¡-S£tra; a four-panel screen having chapters from the S£tra for the Wise and Foolish. Above the entrance of the east wall is an illustration of the Chapter of Buddhaloka of the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra. On the south side of the entrance is Maµju¿r¢ from Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra; on the north is Vimalak¢rti from the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra. The lower parts of the walls have suffered damage.

Cave No. 109

Period of Construction: High Tang.

Contents: The caisson ceiling has fragments of decorative hangings. The west, south and east slopes display miniature Buddhas (partially damaged). The ceiling of the niche on the west wall has a preaching scene (northern side faded); the south wall illustrates Maitreya-S£tra; on the south side of the entrance on the east wall only one devar¡ja remains in a severely damaged painting.

Cave No. 110

Period of Construction: Tang Dynasty.

Contents: The ceiling is destroyed. Only one niche on the west wall survives. A large portion of the mural inside the niche has peeled off. This cave was sealed off in the fortification construction of the Dunhuang grottoes in 1963.

Cave No. 111

Period of Construction: Late Tang (the stucco statues being renovated during Qing).

Contents: The caisson ceiling has lotus designs in the centre. The four slopes are painted with decorative hangings. The east and west slopes show miniature Buddhas with a meditating Buddha in the centre. The north and south slopes also have miniature Buddhas with a preaching Buddha in the centre. The niche on the west wall contains a set of three Buddha statues carved in Qing. The south wall illustrates the Amit¡yus-S£tra with sixteen meditations on either side. S£tra illustrations are seen in one corner of the north wall. In 1921, this cave was vandalized by Russians and there are traces of Russian characters scribbled in pencil on the walls.

Cave No. 112

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (renovated during Song and Qing Dynasties).

Contents: Corridor: With faded Song depiction of Buddha preaching.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows four floral designs on clouds in the centre; the four slopes are painted with decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas with a cross-legged Buddha sitting in the centre. Inside the niche on the west wall there is a Buddha, two disciples and two bodhisattvas, and a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne cast in Tang and repaired in Qing. Twenty-seven sitting Buddhas are painted on the four slopes of the niche. On the four walls there are paintings of the nine N¡gas baptising Prince Siddhartha, ordaining by shaving, preaching etc. From west to east on the south wall are depictions of the Vajracchedik¡-S£tra and Amit¡yus-S£tra; on the north wall west-eastwards are illustrations of the S£tra for Redemption from Indebtedness and BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra. Above the entrance of the west wall is the illustration of M¡ravijaya-S£tra; on the south and north sides of the entrance are the Mah¡sth¡mapr¡pta-S£tra and Avalokite¿vara-S£tra.

Cave No. 113

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties).

Contents: Ante-room: At the time of renovation during the Five Dynasties, an invocation was inscribed above the entrance of the west wall of the ante-room which is decorated by curtain hangings.

Corridor: With fragments of the depiction of the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra painted in the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling has floral designs in the centre. The four slopes are covered with miniature Buddhas and decorative hangings. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a sitting Buddha, K¡¿yapa, Ënanda and a bodhisattva cast in Tang. Outside the niche on either side is a statue of devar¡ja. The south wall illustrates the Amit¡yus-S£tra with the sixteen meditations to the east and Aj¡ta¿atru to the west. At the west end is a yakÀa. The north wall illustrates the Maitreya-S£tra; at the west end is a yakÀa. The Chapter on the Universal Gate of Avalokite¿vara-S£tra is painted above the entrance on the east wall. To the south of the entrance is the thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokite¿vara; to the north is the scene of the Universal Gate of Avalokite¿vara. All the lower parts of the four walls are damaged.

Cave No. 114

Period of Construction: Late Tang.

Contents: This cave is severely damaged. The caisson ceiling has floral designs, while fragments of miniature Buddhas with hanging curtains are seen on the western and southern slopes.

Cave No. 115

Period of Construction: High and Middle Tang (renovated in the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Corridor: The ceiling has paintings of the Five Dynasties of which four sitting Buddhas are extant.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling has floral designs in the centre with decorative hangings on the four slopes (blackened by fumigation). There are miniature Buddhas on the four slopes, a portion of which is damaged. The north and the south walls each carries the figure of a bodhisattva, a two-panel screen painted with a bodhisattva (the lower portion is damaged). On the south wall are depicted KÀitigarbha and two bodhisattvas; on its east are miniature Buddhas. The north wall illustrates paintings of a thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokite¿vara and a sitting Buddha, a bodhisattva to its west, and a KÀitigarbha, a BhaiÀajyaguru and six bodhisattvas to its east all painted in Middle Tang. The south side of the entrance on the east wall has a damaged portrait of Avalokite¿vara along with a KÀitigarbha while on the north side a damaged bodhisattva and a KÀitigarbha all drawn in High Tang. This cave was started in High Tang but the murals on the south and north walls were completed in Middle Tang.

Cave No. 116

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during Middle Tang, Song and Qing).

Contents: Corridor: With Song paintings of art designs on the ceiling and hanging curtains on the south slope.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows camellia designs in the centre. The four slopes are covered by swan and floral motifs, decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas drawn during Middle Tang. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a sitting Buddha, K¡¿yapa, Ënanda and two bodhisattvas repaired in Qing in addition to two statues of bodhisattvas cast in Qing. The south wall illustrates the Amit¡yus-S£tra with the sixteen meditations and Aj¡ta¿atru, painted in Middle Tang and repainted in Song. Seen on the north wall is the S£tra for Maitreya which was painted in Middle Tang and redrawn in Song. Above the entrance of the east wall is a damaged painting of miniature Buddhas. Portraits of KÀitigarbha and Avalokite¿vara are painted to the north and south of the entrance respectively. All these were painted in High Tang.

Cave No. 117

Period of Construction: High and Middle Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Western Xia).

Contents: Corridor: A meditating Buddha painted on the ceiling with a preaching scene on both the north and south walls of the vintage of the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: Floral designs drawn in High Tang are in the centre of the caisson ceiling. The four slopes have decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas painted in High Tang with a preaching scene in the centre. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a sitting Buddha, two disciples and one bodhisattva cast in Tang (repaired in Qing). The south wall illustrates the Amit¡yus-S£tra drawn in Middle Tang with the sixteen meditations on the east and Aj¡ta¿atru on the west; the west end has a halo painted in Western Xia. The north wall illustrates the Maitreya-S£tra, on the west end is a halo from Western Xia. On the south side of the entrance on the east wall is a portrait of Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara, to the north is Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara both drawn in Middle Tang.

Cave No. 118

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Song and Qing Dynasties).

Contents: Ante-room: There is an incomplete painting on the ceiling drawn in Song.

Corridor: Fragments of Song paintings on the ceiling and the northern and southern slopes.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling displays floral designs. Circular lines and pearl strings in border designs on the four slopes which also show flowers and decorative hangings drawn in Song. The inner layer of the south slope reveals miniature Buddhas painted in High Tang. The niche on the west wall houses statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha cast in Song and repaired in Qing, in addition to the statues of four disciples and two bodhisattvas cast in Qing. The Amit¡yus-S£tra illustration painted during Song is on the south wall flanked by sixteen meditations, below them are male donors (blurred) and at the western tip is a flying figure. The north wall illustrates the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra which has on both sides the twelve great vows, below them are female donors (blurred); a flying figure is visible at the west end. Painted above the entrance of the east wall are Buddha and two bodhisattvas, to its north and south are Vai¿rava¸a and Vir£dhaka respectively.

Cave No. 119

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: Depiction of the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra on the ceiling (western end damaged), fragments of devar¡jas on the west wall, faded depiction of Maµju¿r¢'s feats on the south wall, all painted in the Five Dynasties.

Corridor: Damaged preaching scene on the ceiling, faded Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara on the south wall, and fragments of Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara on the north wall all painted in the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: Art designs with lotus and other floral motifs in the centre of the caisson ceiling, miniature Buddhas on the four slopes along with hanging curtains. On the west wall there is a niche with three uncoloured Buddha statues cast in Qing, and a preaching scene painted on the ceiling inside the niche. The western wall inside the niche has halo in relief flanked by two bodhisattvas and four disciples. Beneath the niche there is a faded attending bodhisattva. On both north and south of the niche there is a portrait of a bhikÀu. The south wall is painted with five bodhisattvas inside a lotus pond, to its west is a bodhisattva holding a bottle with five faded donors below. The north wall is also painted with five bodhisattvas inside a lotus pond, to its west is a bodhisattva holding a willow branch, with five faded donors below. The east wall has seven Buddhas painted above the entrance with a bodhisattva in a lotus pond painted on both north and south of the door.

Cave No. 120

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: A preaching scene on the ceiling, an invocation flanked by two bodhisattvas atop the entrance on the west wall, with devar¡jas to the north and south of the door. On the north wall a depiction of Samantabhadra's feats and on the south wall that of Maµju¿r¢ both damaged with only a corner remaining. All these were painted in the Five Dynasties.

Corridor: Depiction of BhaiÀajyaguru's feats faded in the centre on the ceiling. The south wall a thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokite¿vara and the north wall a thousand hands and bowls Maµju¿r¢ both faded. All are paintings of the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling reveals four-petalled flower patterns in the centre. The four slopes have garlands and hanging curtains. Miniature Buddhas are painted on the four slopes. The niche on the west wall shelters a set of five Buddhas cast during Qing. The south wall illustrates the Amit¡yus-S£tra with the sixteen meditations on either side. Seen at the west end is the figure of a disciple; donor figures are seen at the lower level. A preaching scene is depicted on the north wall, at the western end is a disciple which is blurred from below. An illustration of Buddha's nirva¸a is painted above the entrance of the east wall. Devar¡ja portraits which are blurred at the bottom are seen to the north and south of the entrance.

Cave No. 121

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: Fragments of AvalokiteÀvara on the ceiling. The west wall features an invocation, both sides have a Vai¿rava¸a attending Nata's sermon, in addition to four N¡gar¡jas paying homage to Buddha on both sides of the door. The north and south walls both have depiction of a s£tra in damaged condition. All the paintings were from the Five Dynasties.

Corridor: Depiction of a s£tra in the centre of the ceiling with hanging curtains on the southern and northern slopes. The south wall features the portrait of Cao Yijin and the north wall that of his queen, the Uighur princess with attendants. All are paintings of the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling is damaged in the centre. Garlands and hanging curtains and miniature Buddhas drawn during High Tang decorate the four slopes. The niche on the west wall houses a set of seven Buddha statues and a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne, cast in Qing. The south wall features a scene showing the trinity of Buddha preaching the dharma drawn in High Tang below which is a landscape painting drawn during the Five Dynasties. Further below are the portraits of fourteen male donors drawn in the Five Dynasties. The north wall has the same features as the south wall but instead of male donors there are twelve female donors. Above the entrance on the east wall is a mural drawn during the Five Dynasties depicting the Chapter on Buddhaloka of the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra. The south side of the entrance displays an illustration of the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra showing Maµju¿r¢ drawn in the Five Dynasties; five male donors are shown below. To the north of the entrance is the same S£tra showing Vimalak¢rti; below are four female donors and two female attendants.

Cave No. 122

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during Song and Qing Dynasties).

Contents: Ante-room: Fragments of a Song painting on the ceiling. On the west wall, a faded Song invocation with bodhisattvas on both sides. To the north and south of the entrance each is a scene of Vai¿rava¸a attending Nata's sermon. On the south wall is Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara, while opposite a Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara on the north wall. All were Song paintings.

Corridor: An Usher Buddha on the ceiling, and a preaching scene on both the north and south walls painted in Song.

Main Hall: The centre of the ceiling has clouds and flowers drawn in High Tang, with garlands and hanging curtains and miniature Buddhas on the four slopes also drawn in High Tang. A set of five Buddha statues cast in Tang is sheltered in the niche on the west wall along with two statues of bodhisattvas on a warrior platform, cast in Qing. The south wall portrays a preaching scene painted in High Tang, repainted in Song, with a Song painting of a throne below. The doorway of a bottle shape has flowers painted on it. The north wall illustrates Amit¡yus-S£tra drawn in High Tang, with Aj¡ta¿atru to the east and sixteen meditations to the west; below it is a throne, flowers are painted on the bottle-shaped doorway. A preaching scene and two female donors drawn in High Tang are above the entrance on the east wall, to the south of the entrance is the portrait of Bodhisattva Avalokite¿vara, below it is a painting of donors drawn in Song; on the north is a portrait of KÀitigarbha drawn during High Tang, below it are the donors painted in Song.

Cave No. 123

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: Avalokite¿vara preaching on the ceiling, with Avalokite¿vara also painted on the west, south and north walls. One more bodhisattva holding a bowl is painted on the north of the entrance on the west. A depiction of Maµju¿r¢ on the north wall has faded. Thirteen donors are painted at the lower level on all the walls. All paintings are of Song vintage.

Corridor: A preaching scene on the ceiling, a bodhisattva on both the north and south walls painted in the Five Dyansties.

Main Hall: Art designs are seen in the centre of the ceiling, while the four slopes are painted with decorative hanging curtains and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall contains five Buddha statues made during Qing, while the paintings inside the niche are of older vintage. Below the niche is an invocation inscribed at the time when the cave was hewn. The Amit¡bha-S£tra is illustrated on the south wall below which is a painting of donors drawn during the Five Dynasties. The Maitreya-S£tra is illustrated on the north wall; at the lower level is a painting of female donors drawn during the Five Dynasties. Above the entrance on the east wall is a painting of seven Buddhas, a figure of devar¡ja each is painted on the north and south sides. This cave was cut in the third year of the Wansui Era (695-697) of Empress Wu. Its ante-room and Cave No. 124 were renovated in the third year of the Guangshun Era (953 A.D.) of Late Zhou.

Cave No. 124

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties).

Contents: Ante-room: The ceiling shows a preaching scene drawn during the Five Dynasties. On the west wall is an invocation. On both north and south of the entrance is a devar¡ja painted in the Five Dynasties.

Corridor: KÀitigarbha in the centre of the ceiling and a "Water-and-Moon" Avalokite¿vara on both the north and south walls, all painted in the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: Floral designs in the centre of the caisson ceiling, while the four slopes are covered by decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. Painted on the ceiling of the niche on the west wall is a portrait of BhaiÀajyaguru Buddha. The south wall portrays a preaching scene with male donors below. The north wall illustrates the Amit¡bha-S£tra with female donors below. A preaching scene is depicted above the entrance on the east wall. All these were drawn in the Five Dynasties. On each of the two sides is a portrait of a standing Buddha painted during High Tang and a bodhisattva image each on the north and south.

Cave No. 125

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated in the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The ceiling has a portrait of the four-armed Avalokite¿vara drawn during the Five Dynasties. Paintings on the north and south walls have faded or damaged.

Corridor: An Usher Buddha on the ceiling, a sitting Avalokite¿vara on both north and south walls, all painted in the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows floral designs in the centre; the four slopes are covered with decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. A statue of Buddha cast in Qing is sheltered in the niche on the west wall. This statue has been brought from elsewhere. A preaching scene is depicted on the south wall, an invocation is inscribed below and on the two sides are donors. The north wall features a preaching scene, below it are donors drawn during the Five Dynasties. Miniature Buddhas are painted on the east wall. The ante-room of this cave and those of Caves 123 and 124 were renovated in the third year of Guangshun Era (953 A.D.).

Cave No. 126

Period of Construction: High and Middle Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties).

Contents: Ante-room: To the south of the entrance on the west wall is a male donor and on the south wall there are fragments of a painting, all drawn during the Five Dynasties.

Corridor: One third of the painting of Buddhist historical legends remains on the ceiling, with auspicious figures on the northern and southern slopes, all painted in the Five Dynasties. The portraits of the Cao family members with attendants painted in the same period have faded.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling shows Aupap¡dakas born out of lotus drawn during High Tang, the four slopes are filled with decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas painted during High Tang. The ceiling of the niche on the west wall shows chess-board and floral patterns in the centre. The east and west slopes each display seven sitting BhaiÀajyaguru Buddhas, two Aupap¡dakas. The north and south slopes each have four BhaiÀajyaguru Buddhas and two Aupap¡dakas drawn during High Tang. The north wall illustrates the Amit¡yus-S£tra with Aj¡ta¿atru to the east and sixteen meditations to the west. Painted below on a screen are the thirty-three manifestations of Avalokite¿vara drawn during the Five Dynasties. The north wall has similar paintings as the south wall with the screen showing Avalokite¿vara helping people out of perils. An illustration of a preaching scene can be seen above the entrance of the east wall. On the east side of the entrance is illustrated the Sµutra for Avalokite¿vara drawn during High Tang. At the lower level is a two-panel screen painted during the Five Dynasties. On the north of it are the portraits of Avalokite¿vara and KÀitigarbha drawn during Middle Tang, a painting of a two-panel screen drawn during the Five Dynasties is below. This cave was being built in High Tang but was completed only after the second year of Jian Zhong Era (782), it was reconstructed during the time of Cao Yuanzhong of the Five Dynasties.

Cave No. 127

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated in the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: The ceiling exhibits lotus and three rabbits (joining as one) in the centre. The four slopes of the ceiling have decorative hangings and are covered with miniature Buddhas with a cross-legged Buddha sitting in the centre on each slope. There is a Buddha statue cast in Qing housed in the niche on the west wall. Painted on the south wall are the Buddhas of the five directions and four devar¡jas; below it are the male donors. The north wall illustrates the Avatamsaka-S£tra painted during Late Tang. Above the entrance of the east wall are the portraits of a male and a female donor painted during Late Tang, to the north and south of the entrance, one on each side are figures of a sitting Buddha and Avalokite¿vara; below it are the portraits of donors painted during the Five Dynasties.

Cave No. 128

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: The ceiling has lotus designs in the centre; the four slopes are covered by the decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas with a cross-legged sitting Buddha as the central image on each slope. The niche on the west wall contains five colourless clay idols cast in Qing and a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne. On the south wall, from west to east are illustrations of the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra and Devat¡-S£tra which were redrawn during the Five Dynasties. At a lower level is a painting of male donors (blurred) drawn during the Five Dynasties. On the north wall, from west to east are the illustrations of Amit¡bha-S£tra and Maitreya-S£tra which were redrawn during the Five Dynasties. There is a row of female donors painted at the bottom (blurred). Above the entrance on the east wall are portraits of six donors drawn during the Five Dynasties, to the south of the entrance is an illustration of the Avalokite¿vara-S£tra; at the lower level are four male donors, to the north of the entrance is a narrative painting, at the lower level are female donors (blurred), all drawn during the Five Dynasties.

Cave No. 129

Period of Construction: High and Middle Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties).

Contents: Ante-room: On the south side of the entrance is a scene of n¡gar¡jas paying homage to Buddha (blurred).

Main Hall: The centre of the ceiling shows floral designs. The four slopes are painted with decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The centre of the ceiling of the niche on the west wall shows a canopy of bodhi-ratna and two flying figures, the west slope has the same features, the south slope features four standing Buddhas and an attending bodhisattva drawn during High Tang; the north slope has a mural of three standing Buddhas and an attending bodhisattva; the east slope shows eight standing Buddhas and two attending bodhisattvas. An illustration of the Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra drawn during Middle Tang is depicted on the south wall with Aj¡ta¿atru to the west and sixteen meditations to the east; portraits of eighteen male donors drawn in the Five Dynasties are at the lower level. The top portion on the north wall illustrates the Paradise of Maitreya painted during Middle Tang with a row of female donors below. Above the entrance of the east wall are miniature Buddhas drawn during Middle Tang. On the south is a portrait of Amoghap¡Àa Avalokite¿vara drawn in Middle Tang along with three male donors painted during the Five Dynasties. On the north of the entrance is a portrait of Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara painted during Middle Tang with female donors (blurred) below, drawn during the Five Dynasties. This cave was hewn in High Tang with only the ceiling and the western niche being painted. The rest of the original paintings were drawn during Middle Tang.

Cave No. 130

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated in Western Xia).

Contents: Corridor: On the south wall there is a niche on top with damaged Buddha and bodhisattva statues with damaged or faded paintings inside the niche of High Tang and Western Xia vintage. On the north wall there is a niche of similar condition. Beneath the niche is a portrait of Governor Yue Tinghuai painted in High Tang.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling has floral designs; the west slope is painted with a halo while the north, south and east slopes have floral patterns. The west wall has a huge statue of a sitting Maitreya Buddha which is about twenty-six metres high, this is the famous "Southern Giant Buddha" at Dunhuang. Portraits of bodhisattvas by the side of this giant statue were painted in Western Xia. On the east wall there are bodhisattvas painted in Western Xia, but the inner layer reveals the depiction of the Buddha's nirv¡¸a painted in High Tang. Two windows are there above the entrance, one above the other. The top of the window wall has art designs while the northern and southern walls of it have faded bodhisattvas, three on each side. All these were painted in Western Xia. The lower window has art designs on the top wall, while on the southern wall there are six bodhisattvas in a row with three n¡gar¡jas standing below. On the north wall of it there are three bodhisattvas above and two n¡gar¡jas below. All these are paintings of Western Xia

Cave No. 131

Period of Construction: Tang (rebuilt during Qing).

Contents: The niche on the west wall houses statues of a warrior and two bodhisattvas cast during Qing. The north and south walls have two statues each of Taoist gods. This cave was originally hewn during Tang but was totally redone during Qing and turned into a Taoist shrine.

Cave No. 132

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Corridor: Two sitting Buddhas painted in the Five Dynasties on the ceiling.

Main Hall: The niche on the west wall houses six statues cast during Qing, a statue of bodhisattva cast during the Five Dynasties and repaired in Qing and a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne. The south wall illustrates the Amit¡yus-S£tra with sixteen meditations on the east side with a painting of male donors (blurred) drawn during the Five Dynasties below. The north wall illustrates the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra; on its east side is the depiction of the twelve great vows, below it a painting of seven female donors drawn during the Five Dynasties. The south side of the entrance on the east wall illustrates the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra showing Maµju¿r¢ painted during the Five Dynasties, at a lower level are four male donors. On the north side of the entrance is another illustration of the same S£tra painted during the Five Dynasties showing Vimalak¢rti; three female donors are seen below.

Cave No. 133

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (renovated during Song and Qing Dynasties).

Contents: Ante-room: A corner of the ceiling has fragments of a painting drawn in Song. The west wall shows four bodhisattvas painted in Northern Song around the entrance with faded musicians below. The south wall opens to Cave No. 135 and the north wall opens to Cave No. 134.

Corridor: Its south wall has a Peacock King and the north wall has a Garu·a painted in Song.

Main Hall: The niche on the west wall contains five statues and a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne cast in Qing. On the south wall from west to east is a s£tra illustration the lower portion of which is blurred. There are fragments of an illustration of Maitreya-S£tra with a single panel screen below illustrating the Maitreyavya-karana. On the north wall from west to east is the fragment of a s£tra illustration, and a half of the damaged illustration of Suvar¸a-prabh¡sa-S£tra with a three-panel screen below. Above the entrance on the east wall is illustrated the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra showing Vimalak¢rti, below which is a two-panel screen. On the north side of the entrance is the same illustration showing Maµju¿r¢; below which is a two-panel screen depicting the Chapter on Expediency.

Cave No. 134

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (renovated during Late Tang and Qing).

Contents: The caisson ceiling is rectangular in shape; the four slopes have circular lines, border designs of floral motifs and miniature Buddhas with a preaching scene in the centre. The niche on the north wall has five statues. The east wall illustrates the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra; painted on either side of the south wall entrance are camellia flower designs. The west wall features the Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra. This cave is south-facing and was hewn at the same time as Cave Nos. 133 and 135.

Cave No. 135

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (renovated during Late Tang, Song and Qing).

Contents: The ceiling has the same designs as those of Cave No. 134. The niche on the south wall contains five Buddha statues cast during Qing. There is a horse-hoof shaped throne. The west wall illustrates the Devat¡-S£tra, the north and south sides show Brahma's enquiries. The Vajracchedik¡-S£tra is illustrated on the east wall. On either side of the entrance on the north wall are portraits of VaiÀrava¸a, a large portion of it is damaged. This cave is north-facing, and is inside the south wall of the ante-room of Cave No. 133.

Cave No. 136

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated in Song, Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: Art designs on the ceiling and preaching scenes on the west wall have faded. The north wall leads Cave No. 137.

Corridor: The ceiling is decorated with floral designs. The north and south walls feature ceremonial banners and canopies painted in Western Xia.

Main Hall: The west and north slopes of the ceiling have chess-board patterns and floral designs, decorative hangings, flying figures etc. The niche on the west wall houses seven statues cast during Qing. The north and south walls illustrate the Amit¡bha-S£tra; above the entrance on the east wall is a preaching scene; to the north and south are lotus ponds and bodhisattvas with a bottle-shaped door painted below with ratna.

Cave No. 137

Period of Construction: The Five Dynasties (renovated during Song).

Contents: Ante-room: The west wall shows fragments of a painting drawn during Song.

Main Hall: The north slope of the ceiling has miniature Buddhas. The north wall has a statue of a meditating bhikÀu. The east and the west walls have a screen each. This cave is south-facing, and was originally meant to be a cave for meditation during the Five Dynasties. Later when Cave No. 136 was renovated a major portion of this cave was damaged.

Cave No. 138

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties, Song and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The centre of the ceiling has wooden structures put up during Qing, while its southern end is painted with a six-armed Avalokite¿vara. Miniature Buddhas are on the four slopes. There is a wooden gate connected with the wooden eaves with bodhisattvas and donors painted on the wooden columns during Yuan. The original paintings above the gate on the west wall are blocked by the Qing wooden structure. The paintings of devar¡ja on both the north and south of the gate have either faded or been blackened by smoke. The sitting Buddha painted in Yuan on the south wall is blurred, while the upper portion of the north wall is painted with a sitting Buddha flanked by two donors. Below it is the entrance to Cave No. 139.

Corridor: With miniature Buddhas on lotus painted in the centre of the ceiling with fourteen standing BhaiÀajyagurus on the northern and southern slopes. On both the north and south walls were painted four bodhisattvas with four bottle-shaped doors during Yuan.

Main Hall: The central altar has a statue of sitting Buddha cast in Late Tang and repaired during Qing and twelve statues of child-giving goddesses along with a six-armed Avalokite¿vara and two bodhisattvas. The ceiling shows camellia flower designs in the centre; the four slopes are covered by floral motifs, decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas with celestial musicians hovering around with a preaching scene in the centre on each slope. The west wall features BhaiÀajyaguru Buddha; on its north and south sides are painted bodhisattvas attending the sermon. On the south wall from west to east is the La´k¡vat¡ra S£tra, the Vajracchedik¡-S£tra, Amit¡bha-S£tra, Saddharma-pu¸·ar¢ka-Sµutra and Devat¡-S£tra. The north wall illustrates the Suvar¸a-prabh¡sa-S£tra, Sµutra for Redemption from Indebtedness, BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra, Avatamsaka-S£tra and Paradise of Maitreya. On the east wall above the entrance are the portraits of ten male and female donors; on the south side of the entrance is an illustration of the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra, below it are fifteen female donors; on the north side is an illustration of the S£tra for Redemption from Indebtedness, at a lower level are seven female donors and two maids.

Cave No. 139

Period of Construction: Late Tang.

Contents: The ceiling shows the three rabbits (joining as one) and lotus designs in the centre. The four slopes are covered by decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas with a sitting Buddha in the centre. The north wall has a statue of a monk cast in Tang and repaired in Qing. The west wall illustrates the Devat¡-S£tra. Portraits of eight female donors are at the bottom (blurred). The east wall illustrates the Vimalak¢rti-nirdeÀa-S£tra. Above the entrance of the south wall is a portrait of Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara; on both the east and west sides of the entrance is a bodhisattva. This cave was a meditating cave originally. It is inside the north wall of Cave No. 138.

Cave No. 140

Period of Construction: Late Tang and the Five Dynasties (renovated in Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: The niche on the west wall contains a Tang statue of sitting Buddha repaired in Qing and four statues of disciples carved during Qing. There is a painting of BhaiÀajyaguru on both north and south of the curtains of the niche. The south and north walls illustrate the Amit¡bha-S£tra. On the north and south sides of the entrance on the east wall are pictures of Vai¿rava¸a and Vir£dhaka respectively.

Cave No. 141

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated in Song and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: Paintings depicting the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra and the Saddharma-pu¸·ar¢ka-S£tra on the west and north walls are either destroyed or blurred.

Corridor: With the thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokite¿vara on the ceiling painted in Song while the Song paintings of male and female donors on the north and south walls are severely damaged.

Main Hall: The ceiling has round petalled lotus in the centre; the four slopes are painted with decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas with a sitting Buddha in the centre. The niche on the west wall contains five Buddha statues cast in Qing. Inside the niche there are eleven BhaiÀajyagurus along with flying figures. The south wall illustrates the Amit¡bha-S£tra from west to east; on the west side are sixteen meditations; below it is a three-panel screen with Aj¡ta¿atru on two panels and sixteen meditations on the third panel along with the S£tra for Redemption from Indebtedness and the chapter on filial piety, below which is a two-panel screen and a painting drawn in Song on the Chapter of Evil Friends. The north wall illustrates from west to east the S£tra for BhaiÀajyaguru; on the west side are the twelve great vows, a three-panel screen with paintings of nine inauspicious deaths and twelve great vows along with the Paradise of Maitreya; below it is a two-panel screen with scenes of the Pureland of Maitreya. Above the entrance of the east wall is a portrait of Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara; on the north and south sides of the entrance are the illustrations of Vi¿eÀacint¡brahma-parip¤cch¡-Sµutra and Devat¡-S£tra respectively.

Cave No. 142

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated in Song, Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: Seven sitting Buddhas painted above the entrance with a scene of Maµju¡r¢'s feats on its south.

Corridor: With floral designs in the centre of the ceiling and hanging curtain painted on the northern and southern slopes.

Main Hall: The ceiling shows round edged lotus and Dharma-cakra in the centre. The niche on the west wall contains nine Buddha statues cast in Qing. The south and north walls illustrate the Amit¡bha-S£tra; a preaching scene is painted above the entrance of the east wall and to the south and north of the entrance respectively.

Cave No. 143

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated in Qing).

Contents: The niche on the west wall contains a set of seven Qing Buddha statues. There is a Late Tang stone inscription of which only the relief of two dragons on top is visible.

Cave No. 144

Period of Construction: Middle and Late Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: The centre of the ceiling shows the three rabbits (joining as one) and floral designs. The niche on the west wall shelters Tang statues of a sitting Buddha, two disciples and two bodhisattvas repaired in Qing and a statue of devar¡ja cast also in Qing. The south wall illustrates from west to east the Saddharma-pu¸·ar¢ka-S£tra, Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra and the Vajracchedik¡-S£tra. Similarly on the north wall from west to east are the Avatamsaka-S£tra, BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra and S£tra for Redemption from Indebtedness. Painted above the entrance of the east wall are the figures of male and female donors; to the north and south of the entrance are paintings of the thousand-armed Maµju¿r¶ holding bowls and the thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokite¿vara.

Cave No. 145

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Song).

Contents: The ceiling of the niche on the west wall shows lotus and three rabbits (joining as one), chess-board and floral patterns. A set of five standing Buddhas and two bodhisattvas each are painted on the east and west slopes, the south slope has three standing Buddhas, a bodhisattva and a musician while the north slope has three standing Buddhas and two bodhisattva figures. From west to east on the south wall are illustrated the Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra and Vajracchedik¡-S£tra. On the north wall from west-eastwards are illustrations of the S£tra for BhaiÀajyaguru and S£tra for Redemption from Indebtedness. There is no painting above the entrance on the east wall. To the south of the entrance is a portrait of Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara; to the north is that of Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara. The western niche was reconstructed when Cave No. 146 was hewn during the Five Dynasties. The east, south and north walls illustrate important s£tras which were redrawn during the period of Five Dynasties and early Song.

Cave No. 146

Period of Construction: The Five Dynasties (renovated during Song, Yuan and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The south wall has a blurred fresco of a bodhisattva painted during Song. The north wall has a portrait of an attending bodhisattva drawn during Yuan.

Main Hall: The central altar has a statue of sitting Buddha cast in Song and repaired in Qing, and statues of two disciples, two bodhisattvas, two attending bodhisattvas and four warriors cast during Qing. The caisson ceiling shows coiled dragons and parrots in the centre; the four slopes are painted with decorative hangings and floral motifs. The top portion of the west slope shows Amit¡yus Buddha of the west flanked by the Buddhas of the ten directions going to attend the sermon; below it are the portraits of miniature Buddhas. The lokap¡las of the four directions are painted in the four corners of the ceiling. On the south wall from east to west are illustrations of the S£tra for Redemption from Indebtedness, Saddharma-pu¸·ar¢ka-S£tra, Amit¡bha-S£tra and Paradise of Maitreya. The west wall has a scene of the fight between S¡riputra and Raudr¡kÀa and below this painting is a ten-panel screen with the S£tra of the Wise and the Fool painted on the panels. On the north wall from west to east are the illustrations of Devat¡-S£tra, BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra, Avatamsaka-S£tra and Vi¿eÀacint¡brahma-parip¤cch¡-S£tra etc. Above the entrance of the east wall is shown a chapter on Buddhak¦etra from the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra; to the north and south of the entrance are illustrations of the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra showing Vimalak¢rti and Maµju¿r¢ respectively. Below the illustration on the north and south sides is a set of five attending bodhisattvas painted during Song.

Cave No. 147

Period of Construction: Late Tang.

Contents: Corridor: Floral designs in the centre of the ceiling with hanging curtains painted in the northern and southern slopes in addition to faded bodhisattvas on the south and north walls all painted in Western Xia.

Main Hall: The ceiling shows three rabbits (joining as one) and lotus designs in the centre; the four slopes are covered by decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas with BhaiÀajyaguru Buddha in the centre. The central painting on the ceiling of the niche on the west wall is of chess-board patterns and floral designs. There are seven Buddha figures each on the east and west slopes, out of which five are large and two are small. The south and north slopes have five sitting Buddhas each. There are four panels of a screen on the west wall inside the niche painted with s£tra stories. On both the northern and southern sides of the curtains of the niche are Ma¸ju¿r¢ and Samantabhadra respectively. From west to east on the south wall of the cave is the illustration of the Amit¡bha-S£tra below which is a four-panel screen painted with Aj¡ta¿atru and sixteen meditations; the Paradise of Maitreya, below which is a four-panel screen with the painting of the World of Maitreya. West-eastwards on the south wall is the illustration of the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra. Above the entrance of the east wall is a preaching scene, to the north and south of the entrance are the portraits of Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara and Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara respectively.

Cave No. 148

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during Late Tang and Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: Fragments of a preaching scene of Tang vintage on the ceiling with Tang stucco figures of devar¡jas, warriors and followers as well as a lion on each side of the entrance on the west wall. Some of these were repaired in Qing.

Corridor: The S£tra for Redemption from Indebtedness painted in High Tang on the ceiling and the northern and southern slopes is severely damaged. On the north and south walls the Western Xia paintings of donors are extant.

Main Hall: The ceiling is painted with miniature Buddhas drawn during High Tang. The west side altar features Mah¡parinirv¡¸a with mourning Buddhist disciples and celestial beings, princes of various states, Buddha's foster mother and bodhisattvas etc. a total of seventy-two statues cast in Tang and renovated later. The niche on the south wall shows a painting of Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara dh¡ran¢ and other charms (damaged), a cross-legged sitting Buddha statue has been shifted here from elsewhere. The niche on the north wall contains statues of Amoghap¡¸a Avalokite¿vara and a cross-legged sitting Buddha which has been shifted here from elsewhere. On the ceiling inside the niche there is a picture of Buddha with BhaiÀajyaguru and KÀitigarbha on both the slopes. There is a relief of S£rya and Moon God on both sides of the halo on the north wall inside the niche (S£rya on the east has disappeared), with screens painted on the three walls depicting charms. There is a scene of nirv¡¸a on the west and Samantabhadra on the east of the curtains at the opening. Above the entrance of the east wall is a portrait of the thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokite¿vara drawn in High Tang; the south side of the entrance illustrates the Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra with Aj¡ta¿atru to the north and sixteen meditations to the south; the north side of the entrance illustrates the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra with the twelve great vows to the north and nine inauspicious deaths to the south drawn in High Tang. This cave was built in the eleventh year of Dali Era (777) of Tang by Li Dabin. Two accounts on building and renovating the cave by Li Dabin and his descendants during Tang are inscribed in the ante-room.

Cave No. 149

Period of Construction: Yuan.

Contents: The painting on the west wall is of a meditating cross-legged sitting Buddha with two disciples, four devar¡jas and six bodhisattvas. The south and north walls illustrate the Maµju¿r¢-S£tra. Above the entrance of the east wall is the figure of a flaming Vajra warrior; to the north and south of the entrance are portraits of Avalokite¿vara holding a bell and cudgel, and four-armed Avalokite¿vara respectively.

Cave No. 150

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated during Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: On the north and south sides of the entrance on the west wall is a painting of Taoist celestial warrior and the south wall has a painting of seven Taoist celestial warriors both painted during Qing.

Corridor: The south and north walls feature paintings of horse-headed and ox-headed warriors drawn during Qing.

Main Hall: The ceiling shows round petalled lotus flowers in the centre painted during Late Tang; the four slopes are covered by decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas with a multi-jewelled stµupa in the centre, drawn during Late Tang. The niche on the west wall contains five statues cast in Qing. Inside the niche there are devar¡jas and celestial animals by the side of the curtains at the opening. The ceiling and the four slopes feature thirty-four BhaiÀajyagurus and four other bodhisattvas. To the north of the curtain there is the depiction of Maµju¿r¢ painted in Late Tang. Two dragons painted in gold with landscape flower paintings in the background, all works during Qing, are seen inside the altar. On the south wall from west to east are illustrations of the Vajracchedik¡-S£tra, Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra painted during Late Tang. On the north wall from west to east are two illustrations of Ghanavy£ha-S£tra drawn during Late Tang. Above the entrance of the east wall is illustrated the Paradise of Maitreya drawn in Late Tang. To the north and south of the entrance are illustrations of BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra and Amit¡bha-S£tra respectively painted during Late Tang. Judges of the hell and their soldiers painted during Qing are seen at the lower portion of the wall.

Cave Nos. [ 1 - 50   |  51 - 100  |  101 - 150  |  151 - 200  |  201 - 250 ]

[ 251 - 300   |  301 - 350  |  351 - 400  |  401 - 450  |  451 - 492 ]

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