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DUNHUANG ART


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Cave Nos. [ 1 - 50   |  51 - 100  |  101 - 150  |  151 - 200  |  201 - 250 ]

[ 251 - 300   |  301 - 350  |  351 - 400  |  401 - 450  |  451 - 492 ]


A Glimpse of the Mogao Caves

 

Cave No. 151

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (renovated during Western Xia).

Contents: Corridor: There are fragments of paintings of Middle Tang on the north and south walls.

Main Hall: The centre of the ceiling displays floral designs; the four slopes are painted with circular lines, floral motifs, decorative hangings, chess-board and floral patterns. The ceiling of the niche on the west wall shows floral patterns in the centre; the four slopes have decorative hangings. The north and south walls illustrate the Amit¡bha-S£tra. Above the entrance of the east wall is inscribed an invocation (destroyed); portraits of two bodhisattvas each are painted on the north and south sides of the entrance.

Cave No. 152

Period of Construction: Song (renovated during Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: Corridor: Floral designs in the centre and hanging curtains on the northern and southern slopes of the ceiling with six Buddhas and ten bodhisattvas on both north and south walls.

Main Hall: On the central altar are statues of Ënanda and K¡¿yapa cast in Tang, statues of bodhisattva, Maµju¿r¢ and Samantabhadra cast in Song and statues of two bodhisattvas cast in Qing. The north, south and east sides of the Buddha throne are painted with precious offerings of Uighur style while the west side shows bodhisattvas, devar¡jas and donors painted by the Uighur donors. The centre of the ceiling is painted with dharma-cakra and four dragons; the four slopes are covered by decorative hangings. The west slope has three scenes of Buddhas attending sermon, at a lower level are miniature Buddhas; in the centre Buddhas of the ten directions attending sermon. The west wall features an Aupap¡daka bodhisattva drawn during the Uighur regime, the central painting is of a bodhisattva preaching the dharma, on the two sides are miniature Buddhas painted during Western Xia. The north, south and east walls feature miniature Buddhas painted during Western Xia.

Cave No. 153

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (renovated during Western Xia).

Contents: Corridor: With a faded bodhisattva drawn in Western Xia on the north and south walls.

Main Hall: The west slope of the ceiling features miniature Buddhas painted during Middle Tang, the north slope has portraits of two bodhisattvas painted during Western Xia. The ceiling of the niche on the west wall displays floral designs in the centre. The east and west slopes have six standing BhaiÀajyaguru Buddhas each, painted during Middle Tang, on either side of the BhaiÀajyaguru is an attending bodhisattva. The south and north slopes have two standing BhaiÀajyaguru Buddhas flanked by a bodhisattva drawn during Middle Tang. The south and north walls feature Samantabhadra and Maµju¿r¢ respectively drawn during Western Xia. Flying figures are on the south wall. A preaching scene drawn in Western Xia is seen above the entrance of the east wall, on the north and south sides of the entrance are bodhisattvas drawn in Western Xia, one on the north side and two on the south side. This cave was damaged at the time of hewing Cave No. 152 in early Song, only a niche survived. The paintings on east, south and north walls were added during Western Xia.

Cave No. 154

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (renovated during Western Xia).

Contents: The ceiling has camellia flower designs in the centre; the four slopes are painted with decorative hangings. The niche on the west wall contains a statue of a bodhsattva carved in Middle Tang. On the top layer of the south wall, from east to west are illustrations of the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra and Suvar¸aprabh¡sa-S£tra; the lower layer illustrates the Paradise of Maitreya and Saddharma-pu¸·r¢ka-S£tra, the two ends display the portraits of Vai¿rava¸a and Avalokite¿vara. On the north wall from east- westwards are illustrated the Sµutra for Redemption from Indebtedness and Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra; at the lower level are portraits of KÀitigarbha Bodhisattva and four flower holding attending bodhisattvas drawn during Western Xia; at the two ends are portraits of Avalokite¿vara Bodhisattva painted during Western Xia. Above the entrance of the east wall is a painting showing three sitting Buddhas and a preaching scene drawn in Western Xia; painted on the top portion of the north and south sides of the entrance are the Vajracchedik¡-S£tra and Suvar¸aprabh¡sa-S£tra respectively.

Cave No. 155

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (the frescoes being redrawn in the Five Dynasties).

Contents: The west slope of the niche on the west wall portrays seven standing BhaiÀajyaguru Buddhas. The south wall illustrates Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra with Aj¡ta¿atru to the east and the sixteen meditations to the west. The north wall illustrates the Paradise of Maitreya, at the west end is the figure of a bodhisattva (which has been disfigured by smoking).

Cave No. 156

Period of Construction: Late Tang.

Contents: Ante-room: The ceiling has an illustration of M¡ra-vijaya in the centre; the south side shows the Saddharma-pu¸·ar¢ka-S£tra and the north side, the S£tra for Redemption of Parents. A painting of seven Buddhas covers the space above the entrance of the west wall, to the north and south of the entrance are the portraits of Vai¿rava¸a and Vir£dhaka respectively. The north wall features the portraits of three female donors of the Song family and an account of the Mogao Caves is inscribed on the western corner. The south wall has the pictures of Zhang Yichao and Zhang Zhunshen along with the figures of five male donors.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows the round petalled lotus designs in the centre; the four slopes are covered by floral motifs and decorative hangings; the north, south, east and west slopes illustrate the Avatamsaka-S£tra, Saddharma-pu¸·ar¶ka-S£tra, La´k¡vat¡ra-S£tra and Maitreya-S£tra respectively. The niche on the west wall shelters a statue of a sitting Buddha and a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne. Inside the niche are Avalokite¿vara in three different incarnations on the ceiling and the slopes along with other bodhisattvas. On the south of the curtains at the opening there is Samantabhadra, on its north there is Maµju¿r¢. West-eastwards on the south wall are illustrations of the Vi¿eÀacint¡brahma-parip¤cch¡-S£tra, Amit¡bha-S£tra and the Vajracchedik¡-S£tra. West-east- wards on the north wall are the illustrations of Sµutra for Redemption from Indebtedness, BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra, Devat¡-S£tra. Above the entrance on the east wall are three male donors, one female donor and two attendants. The south side of the entrance illustrates the Suvar¸a-prabh¡sa-S£tra; the north side illustrates the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra.

Cave No. 157

Period of Construction: Middle Tang.

Contents: The caisson ceiling shows lotus designs in the centre; the west and north slopes are covered by miniature Buddhas and garland decorations which are partially damaged. The cave is north-facing and was damaged during construction work in Qing. Paintings on the four walls are peeling off and faded.

Cave No. 158

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (renovated during Western Xia).

Contents: Corridor: The ceiling has floral designs in the centre. The north and south slopes have six and ten sitting Buddhas respectively. The lower portion of the south wall features four bhikÀus; that of the north wall shows two bhikÀus and two donors in Tibetan costumes both drawn during Middle Tang.

Main Hall: The ceiling displays a painting of Sukh¡vat¢ of the South with miniature Buddhas, the Sukh¡vat¢ of the west (?) with miniature Buddhas and the Sukh¡vat¢ of the north. From south to north on the east slope are paintings of bodhisattvas attending sermon, Sukh¡vat¢ of the south-east direction, sermon attending bodhisattvas, Sukh¡vat¢ of the east, sermon attending bodhisattvas, Sukh¡vat¢ of the north-east direction and sermon attending bodhisattvas. From south to north on the west slope are paintings showing sermon attending bodhisattvas, Sukh¡vat¢ of the south-west, sermon attending bodhisattvas, Sukh¡vat¢ of the west, sermon attending bodhisattvas, Sukh¡vat¢ of the north-west, sermon attending bodhisattvas. The south slope illustrates the S£tra for Samantabhadra; on either side are the sermon attending bodhisattvas. The north slope illustrates the S£tra for Maµju¿r¢ on either side are the sermon attending bodhisattvas. The altar on the west wall houses a statue of fifteen metre á¡kyamuni in Mah¡parinirv¡¸a. The west wall features the eight categories of supernatural beings, Brahmadeva, Buddha disciples, bodhisattvas and five flying figures showering petals. The south wall has a statue of a standing Buddha, the north wall of a sitting Buddha. Above the entrance of the east wall is a portrait of Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara flanked by a bodhisattva on either side; to the north and south of the entrance are illustrations of the Suvar¸aprabh¡sa-S£tra and Devat¡-S£tra respectively.

Cave No. 159

Period of Construction: Middle Tang.

Contents: Ante-room: Fragments of miniature Buddhas remain in a corner on the western slope of the ceiling. On the west wall the Western Xia paintings if the surface layer is removed. These reveal paintings of devar¡jas and damaged portraits of bhikÀus. On the south wall there are fragments of the depiction of the Amit¡bha-S£tra. The north wall is the entrance to Cave No. 160.

Corridor: There are art designs on the ceiling. On the north and south walls are designs painted in Western Xia.

Main Hall: The ceiling shows winding branches and camellia flower designs in the centre. The west and south slopes are painted with decorative hangings and each of the four slopes is partially covered by miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall contains statues of K¡¿yapa, Ënanda, bodhisattvas, devar¡jas cast in Middle Tang. Inside the niche there are Buddhas painted on the slopes of the ceiling. On the west and south walls inside the niche are paintings depicting Karma. On the south of the curtains at the opening of the niche there are paintings of the feats of Samantabhadra. On the north those of Maµju¿r¢ with a map of Mount Wutai on a two-panel screen. From west to east on the south wall are illustrations of the Saddharma-pu¸·ar¢ka-S£tra, Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra and Paradise of Maitreya. On the north wall, west-eastwards are illustrations of the Avatamsaka-S£tra, BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra and Devat¡-S£tra. Above the entrance of the east wall is an illustration of the chapter on BuddhakÀetra from the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra. On the north and south sides of the entrance are illustrations of the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra showing Maµju¿r¢ and Vimalak¢rti respectively.

Cave No. 160

Period of Construction: Late Tang.

Contents: Corridor: The ceiling shows a portrait of Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara. The east wall has three Vajra warriors with one more on the west wall along with a donor bhik¦u.

Main Hall: The ceiling has miniature Buddhas. The north wall has statues of á¡kyamuni in sitting pose, two disciples and two damaged statues. Drawn below the Buddha throne are the donor figures, and drawings on the wall are of six bodhisattvas and eight disciples. The east wall has a portrait of BhaiÀajyaguru, with the twelve great vows on the north and the nine inauspicious deaths on the south. The west wall illustrates the Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra with Aj¡ta¿atru to the south and sixteen meditations to the north. A painting of seven sitting Buddhas adorns the space above the entrance of the south wall, to the east and the west of the entrance are illustrations of the Samantabhadra-S£tra and Maµju¿r¢-S£tra respectively. This cave is facing south.

Cave No. 161

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated during Song).

Contents: Ante-room: The west slope of the ceiling shows chess-board patterns and floral designs which have faded. A preaching scene drawn during Song covers the area above the entrance of the west wall (also faded). A picture of a bodhisattva listening to dharma drawn during Late Tang is revealed after peeling off the surface coating. The corridor ceiling shows chess-board and floral designs drawn in Song; the north and the south walls have bodhisattvas drawn in Song which are blurred.

Main Hall: The central Buddha altar contains statues of two donors in Tibetan costumes. The caisson ceiling of the cave is covered by the portrait of the thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokite¿vara; the four slopes are painted with floral motifs and decorative hangings. Each of the four slopes shows bodhisattvas listening to dharma in ten groups with Avalokite¿vara in the centre. The west wall illustrates Avalokite¿vara S£tra in the centre, encircling it are bodhisattvas listening to dharma in twenty-eight groups. The south wall illustrates the Maµju¿r¢-S£tra in the centre surrounding which are twenty-eight groups of bodhisattvas listening to dharma most of which have peeled off. The north wall illustrates Samantabhadra-S£tra in the centre, which is encircled by twenty-eight groups of bodhisattvas listening to dharma most of which have peeled off. Above the entrance of the east wall is a painting of Avalokite¿vara on Mount Potalaka, on the north and the south sides of the entrance are shown bodhisattvas listening to dharma in twelve groups each.

Cave No. 162

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The south wall features a six-armed Avalokite¿vara painted during the Five Dynasties. The corridor ceiling displays the portrait of an eight-armed Avalokite¿vara in the centre; the north and south slopes feature five sitting Buddhas each.

Main Hall: The ceiling in the main hall shows lotus flower designs in the centre; the four slopes are painted with miniature Buddhas and decorative hangings. The niche on the west wall shelters a set of seven statues of Avalokite¿vara cast during Qing. Miniature Buddhas cover the north, south and east walls.

Cave No. 163

Period of Construction: Late Tang (the stucco statues being redecorated during Qing).

Contents: The niche on the west wall contains seven Buddha statues and a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne cast in Qing. The south wall features a six-armed, eleven-headed Avalokite¿vara, the west side describes the Universal Gate of Avalokite¿vara. The mural on the north wall shows Amoghap¡Àa Avalokite¿vara; on the west side is an incantation of the same deity.

Cave No. 164

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties, Western Xia and Qing Dynasties).

Contents: Ante-room: Five sitting Buddhas are painted towards south above the entrance of the west wall. Below them are the blurred figures of four bodhisattvas. To the north of the entrance are fragments of a portrait of a bodhisattva. The south wall features two cross-legged sitting Buddhas. The south and north walls have two bodhisattvas each.

Corridor: The centre of the ceiling shows floral patterns drawn in Western Xia. The north and south slopes are covered by decorative hangings. The north and south walls each have portraits of two alms-offering bodhisattvas which are partially damaged.

Main Hall: The ceiling has floral and round petalled lotus designs in the centre. The niche on the west wall shelters a statue of Buddha cast in Tang and repaired during Qing. Statues of six disciples and a statue each of Maµju¿r¢ and Samantabhadra on both sides of the platform cast in Qing. The top portion of the south wall has decorative hangings; from west to east the middle portion features a canopy with jewels and a halo, and illustrations of BhaiÀajyaguru S£tra and Amit¡bha S£tra; below it are offerings, a bodhisattva and three musicians drawn during High Tang. The paintings on the north wall are identical as those on the south wall. Above the entrance of the east wall is the figure of a meditating Buddha, the south side of the entrance illustrates the S£tra for Samantabhadra and the north side illustrates the S£tra for Maµju¿r¢. This cave was hewn in High Tang. During the Five Dynasties its entrance was renovated and during Western Xia the murals were repainted.

Cave No. 165

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties, Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: On either side of the west wall is a portrait of devar¡ja drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Corridor: A picture of the Peacock-King on the ceiling.

Main Hall: The ceiling of the niche on the west wall shows floral designs in the centre painted during Western Xia; the four slopes are covered by circular lines, floral motifs, chess-board and floral patterns, decorative hangings and each slope has four flying figures at the lower level. The niche contains seven Buddha statues. The south wall illustrates the Amit¡bha-S£tra. The north wall features s£tra illustrations. Above the entrance of the east wall is a preaching scene; on the north and south sides of the entrance are portraits of Maµju¿r¢ and Samantabhadra respectively. Most of these were cast and drawn in Western Xia.

Cave No. 166

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated in Middle Tang, the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The west slope of the ceiling shows a damaged painting drawn during Song. Above the entrance on the west wall is inscribed an invocation; on the south of the door there is Maµju¿r¢; on top of it is the Maitreyavya-karana drawn during Song, while its lower portion is the entrance of Cave No. 167. The north side of the door shows N¡gar¡jas paying homage to Buddha; and also the entrance of Cave No. 168; on its south are fragments of a painting of N¡gar¡jas paying homage to Buddha. The north and south walls have a painting each of devar¡jas.

Corridor: The ceiling has a six-armed Avalokite¿vara in the centre drawn during Song. The north and south slopes have seven meditating Buddhas each, in sitting posture; both the north and south walls have a mural each showing the eight categories of supernatural beings (blurred).

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling shows floral patterns and clouds. The four slopes have decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a sitting Buddha, two bodhisattvas cast in Tang (repaired during Qing) and four statues of disciples cast in Qing. West-eastwards on the south wall are a sitting Buddha, seven cross-legged sitting Buddhas, seven standing BhaiÀajyaguru Buddhas, three portraits of Avalokite¿vara Bodhisattva; the middle portion shows two bodhisattvas and Avalokite¿vara Bodhisattva drawn during Middle Tang; below are twelve female donors and a donor bhikÀun¢ drawn during Song. The north wall features miniature Buddhas, with a preaching scene drawn during Middle Tang in the centre. Below are four female donors painted during Song. To the south of the entrance on the east wall are portraits of Avalokite¿vara Bodhisattva and KÀitigarbha, three male donors, a bodhisattva drawn in Song and seven female donors. On the north side are paintings of KÀitigarbha, Amit¡bha Buddha, BhaiÀajyaguru Buddha and Prabh£taratna; fourteen of the miniature Buddhas, a preaching scene painted during Five Dynasties, portrait of a bodhisattva and six male donors drawn during Song.

Cave No. 167

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated in Song and Qing).

Contents: The ceiling shows two floral designs in the centre; the four slopes are covered by decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall houses a Buddha image and six statues of disciples cast in Qing. Inside the niche miniature Buddhas are painted on the ceiling. An original painting of a preaching scene is covered by the Qing statues. Curtains are painted on top of the niche with three sitting Buddhas on both sides. On the south outside the niche is Samantabhadra, on its north, Maµju¿r¢. The south and the north walls illustrate the Amit¡bha-S£tra and the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra respectively, the west side of the north wall shows the twelve great vows. To the south and north of the entrance on the east wall are inscriptions of Song with white powder.

Cave No. 168

Period of Construction: Late Tang (the statues renovated during Qing).

Contents: The south and north walls illustrate the Paradise of Maitreya and s£tras respectively. On the north and south sides of the entrance on the east wall are portraits of devar¡ja one each to a side. The cave is on the north of the door on the west wall of the ante-room.

Cave No. 169

Period of Construction: Tang (renovated during Song and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The ceiling has three preaching scenes. Above the entrance of the west wall is an invocation inscribed during Song. Both the north and south of the entrance have paintings of Vai¿rava¸a attending Nata's sermon.

Corridor: A picture of the Peacock-King flanked by three sitting Buddhas on each of the northern and southern sides.

Main Hall: The ceiling has coiled dragon designs in the centre; the four slopes have circular lines, floral motifs, chess-board and floral patterns and decorative hangings. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, two devar¡jas cast in Tang (repaired during Qing), three statues of disciples cast in Qing. The south, north and east walls are covered by miniature Buddhas.

Cave No. 170

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The ceiling reveals a damaged painting in a corner. Above the entrance on the west wall is the faded invocation inscribed during Song when the cave was renovated; a portrait of a bodhisattva; the south side features a preaching scene and the north side shows Avalokite¿vara in Mount Potalaka. The south wall has a damaged painting and the north wall the Devat¡-S£tra which was destroyed.

Corridor: The ceiling shows a preaching scene.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling has floral designs in the centre. The four slopes are covered by decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas drawn during High Tang. The niche on the west wall shelters a statue of Buddha cast in Song and repaired during Qing. Inside the niche there is a preaching scene on the west wall with five disciples flanking Buddha on each side. There are four bodhisattvas on both the north and south walls inside the niche. Nine Buddhas are painted above the Buddha altar. A bodhisattva is painted on both sides of the curtains at the opening of the altar. The mural on the south wall of the cave illustrates the Paradise of Maitreya, the north wall features Buddha preaching the S£tra of filial piety. Above the entrance of the east wall is a set of three sitting Buddhas, to the north of the entrance is a portrait of Vai¿rava¸a.

Cave No. 171

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during Song and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: Above the entrance of the west wall is inscribed an invocation (blurred). To the south and north of the entrance are portraits of Vir£dhaka and Vai¿rava¸a respectively, painted during Song; below Vir£dhaka are the donors; the lower level of the portrait of Vai¿rava¸a shows a painting drawn during the Five Dynasties. The north and south walls depict Vai¿rava¸a and Vir£dhaka respectively drawn during Song with male and female donors at the respective lower levels.

Corridor: The ceiling depicts a portrait of six-armed Avalokite¿vara; the north and south slopes are covered by decorative hangings. The north and south walls feature the Maµju¿r¢-S£tra and Samantabhadra-S£tra both drawn during Song; at the lower level on both the walls are faded donors.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling shows clusters of flowers painted during High Tang; the four slopes are covered with miniature Buddhas, garlands and hanging curtains. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha and two bodhisattvas cast in Tang and statues of four disciples cast during Qing. Inside the niche there are six standing BhaiÀajyagurus (two damaged) and two bodhisattvas (one damaged) on the western slope. On its northern and southern slopes there are four standing BhaiÀajyagurus with two bodhisattvas respectively. On each of the west, north and south walls are six sitting Buddhas with bodhisattvas in the lotus ponds at the lower level. On the south of the curtains at the opening there is BhaiÀajyagurus, and to its north, Avalokite¿vara. The south and north walls illustrate the Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra with Aj¡ta¿atru to the east and sixteen meditations to the west. The same s£tra is illustrated on the east wall too. On the south and north of the entrance are Aj¡ta¿atru and the depiction of sixteen meditations.

Cave No. 172

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during Song and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: Above the entrance of the west wall is an invocation inscribed during Song with the scene of Vai¿rava¸a attending Nata's sermon on both sides. On the north and south of the entrance are illustrations of the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra showing Vimalak¢rti and Maµju¿r¢ respectively. The south wall has the painting of the thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokite¿vara and the north wall has Maµju¿r¢ with thousand arms with a bowl in each hand. A hole is there on both these walls damaging the paintings. Atop the hole on the north wall are sitting Buddhas of the five directions.

Corridor: Floral designs on the ceiling, bodhisattvas on northern and southern walls respectively. The south wall opens the entrance to Cave No. 173.

Main Hall: The ceiling has floral designs in the centre (blurred). The four slopes are painted with the decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas; each of the four corners has a flying figure. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a sitting Buddha, two disciples, bodhisattvas, sitting bodhisattvas in ardha padm¡sana and devar¡jas cast in Tang and repaired in Qing. The ceiling of the altar is painted with the Trinity preaching surrounded by flying figures and clouds. The west wall inside the niche has a halo flanked by two disciples in relief, while the north and south walls have three disciples each. The south and north walls illustrate the Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra showing Aj¡ta¿atru on the west side and sixteen meditations on the east side. At the western end of both walls are Avalokite¿vara. The Sukh¡vat¢ S£tra is illustrated in the space above the entrance on the east wall; at the top, on the south side of the entrance are portraits of KÀitigarbha, Avalokite¿vara and four bodhisattvas; the middle portion illustrates the Samantabhadra-S£tra; the lower portion is blurred. On the north side at the top is a portrait of BhaiÀajyaguru and four bodhisattvas; the middle portion illustrates the Maµju¿r¢-S£tra; the lower level shows donors painted during Song.

Cave No. 173

Period of Construction: Late Tang (the stucco statues being redecorated in Qing).

Contents: The caisson ceiling has floral designs in the centre; the four slopes are painted with decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas with a preaching scene in the centre. The niche on the south wall contains a set of three statues cast in Qing. The east wall illustrates BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra. The west wall illustrates the Amit¡bha-S£tra.

Cave No. 174

Period of Construction: Song.

Contents: Corridor: It is the corridor of the ante-room of Cave No. 172.

Main Hall: It is the ante-room of Cave No. 175. The ceiling shows a preaching scene. The ceiling of the niche on the north wall has lotus flowers with coloured clouds on its two sides. The middle portion of the west wall has a corridor leading to Cave No. 175; on the north and south sides of the passage is a figure of a bodhisattva. Above the entrance on the east wall is a preaching scene, a bodhisattva is seen to its north.

Cave No. 175

Period of Construction: High Tang (the paintings redrawn in Song and the stucco statues cast during Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: It is Cave No. 174.

Corridor: The ceiling shows a cross-legged sitting Buddha in the centre. The north and south slopes each have a flying figure. The south wall has a donor bhikÀu; the north wall a donor bhikÀu and a donor all drawn in Song.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling has floral designs in the centre; the four slopes show decorative hangings, miniature Buddhas with a cross-legged sitting BhaiÀajyaguru Buddha in the centre. On a low platform on the west wall are statues of a Buddha and four disciples cast in Qing. On the south wall west-eastwards are a disciple, two bodhisattvas and a BhaiÀajyaguru. On the north wall from west to east are two disciples, two bodhisattvas and Avalokite¿vara and seven Buddhas sitting in a lotus pond (partially damaged). Above the entrance of the east wall is an inscription, on both north and south of the entrance is a devar¡ja and a donor.

Cave No. 176

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated during Middle Tang, Song and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: A portrait of "Moon-and-Water" Avalokite¿vara drawn in Song is on the west slope of the ceiling. Above the entrance of the west wall is an invocation inscribed during Song and on either side are two bodhisattvas. On both north and south of the entrance are N¡gar¡jas paying homage to Buddha drawn in Song. The south wall illustrates the Maµju¿r¢-S£tra and the north Samantabhadra-S£tra.

Corridor: The ceiling shows the portrait of KÀitigarbha with the ten kings of hell and a depiction of transmigration in the centre; the north and south slopes have nine sitting Buddhas each, all drawn in Song.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows floral designs painted in High Tang in the centre; the four slopes have decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall contains nine statues cast in Qing. Inside the niche there are four flying figures and a preaching scene on the ceiling, disciples and bodhisattvas on the west, north and south walls; all painted in High Tang with a halo painted in Song on the west wall. From west to east on the south wall are depictions of Avalokite¿vara below which are four male donors painted during the Five Dynasties; an illustration of the Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra with Aj¡ta¿atru to the west and sixteen meditations to the east; portraits of S£rya, Candra and K¦itigarbha Bodhisattvas drawn during Middle Tang. West-eastwards on the north wall are depictions of KÀitigarbha, miniature Buddhas with BhaiÀajyaguru, KÀitigarbha and Avalokite¿vara in the centre of the miniature Buddhas, and a Middle Tang Avalokite¿vara. Above the entrance on the east wall are the paintings of CintamaÄi-Cakra Avalokite¿vara, thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokite¿vara, a painting of a bodhisattva holding a bowl drawn in the Five Dynasties and two cross-legged sitting Buddhas. On the north of the entrance are BhaiÀajyaguru, KÀitigarbha, Prabh£taratna and two miniature Buddhas drawn during Middle Tang; an attending bodhisattva and twenty-six miniature Buddhas drawn during the Five Dynasties. On the south are KÀitigarbha, two bodhisattvas and fourteen miniature Buddhas drawn during Middle Tang; an attending bodhisattva and eighteen miniature Buddhas drawn during Song.

Cave No. 177

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated during Song and Qing).

Contents: Corridor: The ceiling shows cross-cudgel patterns in the centre; the east and west slopes are covered by flowers and a halo. Both the north and south walls have an attending bodhisattva.

Main Hall: The ceiling shows floral designs in the centre; the four slopes are painted with decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas with a cross-legged sitting Buddha in the centre. The niche on the south wall shelters two disciple statues cast in Qing. Inside the niche are miniature Buddhas on the ceiling with K¦itigarbha and Maitreya and bodhisattvas drawn on the south wall. Atop the niche is a row of miniature Buddhas. Outside the niche on both east and west is a flying figure with Samantabhadra on the east and Maµju¿r¢ on the west. The east wall illustrates the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra with twelve great vows to the north and nine inauspicious deaths to the south. The west wall illustrates the Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-Sµutra with Aj¡ta¿atru to the north and sixteen meditations to the south. This cave is situated on the south of the corridor of Cave No. 176. The north wall was added during Song while renovating the corridor of Cave No. 176.

Cave No. 178

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated in Song).

Contents: Corridor: The west slope of the ceiling is covered by floral designs. Both the east and west walls have an attending bodhisattva drawn in Song.

Main Hall: The ceiling has lotus designs in the centre. The four slopes are painted with a BhaiÀajyaguru Buddha preaching. The ceiling of the niche on the north wall displays chess-board and floral designs. On both east and west of the niche is a devar¡ja painted on the wall. The west and east walls depict Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara and Amoghap¡Üa Avalokite¿vara respectively. This cave is situated on the north wall of Cave No. 176.

Cave No. 179

Period of Construction: Late and Middle Tang (renovated during Qing).

Contents: The caisson ceiling shows lotus designs in the centre redrawn in Middle Tang. The four slopes are without paintings. The west wall has a preaching scene drawn during Middle Tang and statues of a Buddha and a disciple cast during Qing. The south wall illustrates a preaching scene drawn during High Tang. The north wall shows a preaching scene drawn during Middle Tang. All the above paintings are damaged. Above the entrance of the east wall is a portrait of a meditating Buddha; on both the north and south sides of the entrance is a bodhisattva.

Cave No. 180

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties, Middle Tang and Qing).

Contents: Corridor: The centre of the ceiling shows an Usher Buddha. Both the north and south slopes have five sitting Buddhas. Painting of a female donor on the north wall is damaged, just the head remains. All the paintings were drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows camellia flowers in circles; the four slopes have miniature Buddhas and decorative hangings painted during High Tang. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a sitting Buddha cast in Tang and five disciples and two celestial animals cast during Qing. The west wall of the interior of the niche features disciples, devakany¡s, monks, ratnas, r¡kÀas, a king and his two ladies. On the south of the niche is Samantabhadra, on its north is Maµju¿r¢ painted in High Tang. The south wall illustrates the BhaiÀajyaguru S£tra drawn during Middle Tang with the twelve great vows on the east side and the nine inauspicious deaths on the west. The north wall illustrates the Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra with Aj¡ta¿atru on the east and the sixteen meditations to the west drawn during Middle Tang. Above the entrance on the east wall is a painting of eight sitting Buddhas; on the south side of the entrance are the portraits of five bodhisattvas and on the north side is an illustration of the Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra with Aj¡ta¿atru to the south and sixteen meditations to the north; all the paintings were drawn during Middle Tang.

Cave No. 181

Period of Construction: Late Tang.

Contents: The ceiling of the niche on the west wall is covered by miniature Buddhas. The north and south walls have faded s£tra illustrations. The west wall features a niche inside which are miniature Buddhas on the ceiling and bodhisattvas on the wall. Atop the niche are miniature Buddhas.

Cave No. 182

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during Song and Qing).

Contents: The niche on the west wall contains statue of a sitting Buddha cast in Tang and four statues of disciples cast in Qing. The north, south and east walls are painted with miniature Buddhas.

Cave No. 183

Period of Construction: Late Tang.

Contents: The ceiling of the niche on the west wall is painted with the chess-board and floral patterns on the ceiling and bodhisattvas, disciples and landscape on the walls.

Cave No. 184

Period of Construction: Late Tang (paintings being redrawn during the Five Dynasties).

Contents: The ceiling shows floral designs in the centre; the north, south and west slopes have decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas with a cross-legged Buddha sitting in the centre. There is a niche on the west wall with paintings of disciples and art designs.

Cave No. 185

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during Middle Tang, the Five Dynasties, Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: Corridor: The north wall features an attending bodhisattva drawn during Western Xia, with male donors drawn during the Five Dynasties below.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling has flower clusters in the centre, the four slopes are covered by miniature Buddhas partially damaged. The niche on the west wall contains a statue of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, two disciples cast in Tang (repaired during Qing) and statues of two bodhisattvas cast in Qing. Inside the niche are paintings of bodhisattvas and disciples. The south wall is covered by miniature Buddhas drawn during Middle Tang with a preaching scene of High Tang in the centre. The north wall illustrates the Avalokite¿vara-S£tra. The west side displays the thirty-three manifestations and the east side a scene of Avalokite¿vara rescuing people from troubles. Above the entrance of the east wall is an illustration of the Nirv¡¸a-S£tra drawn in Middle Tang; on the north and south of the entrance are faded Maµju¿r¢-S£tra and Samantabhadra-S£tra respectively.

Cave No. 186

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: The ceiling shows round petalled lotus in the centre drawn in Middle Tang; the four slopes are covered by decorative hangings and illustration of the Paradise of Maitreya; the west wall depicts dharma meetings, Buddha stories and scenes of the life of the people. The niche on the west wall has six statues cast in Qing. Two flying figures are painted on the ceiling of the niche with disciples and art designs on its inner walls. The south wall illustrates the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra and the north wall illustrates the La´k¡vat¡ra-S£tra. A preaching scene drawn in the Five Dynasties is seen above the entrance of the east wall. Both the south and north sides of the entrance have portraits of a bodhisattva drawn in the Five Dynasties as well as a statue of a standing bodhisattva cast in Qing.

Cave No. 187

Period of Construction: The Five Dynasties.

Contents: On the west wall is a bodhi-ratna canopy with Buddha's disciples. The north and south walls are painted with decorative hangings, bodhisattvas and disciples. On the east wall to the south of the entrance is a bodhisattva.

Cave No. 188

Period of Construction: High and Middle Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties, Song and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The west slope of the ceiling has floral patterns drawn in Song. Above the entrance of the west wall is an invocation inscribed during Song. To the north of the entrance at a lower level is a painting showing N¡gar¡jas paying homage to Buddha drawn in the Five Dynasties. On the south wall is a bodhisattva painted in Song and revealed on the inner layer are fragments of a painting drawn in the Five Dynasties. On the north wall the painting drawn in Song is faded; while the inner layer shows a damaged painting drawn in the Five Dynasties. The east end is the entrance to Cave No. 189.

Corridor: The ceiling shows a faded painting drawn in Song. The north and south walls have faded paintings drawn in Song while the inner layer of both the walls has paintings drawn in the Five Dynasties which are blurred.

Main Hall: The ceiling shows floral patterns in the centre painted in High Tang; the four slopes have decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall contains a statue of Buddha and four disciples cast in Tang and repaired in Qing. Inside the niche are standing Buddhas, attending bodhisattvas and flying figures painted on the ceiling and disciples on the screens of the wall all painted during Tang. Below the niche is a portrait of the donor with inscriptions of the Five Dynasties. The Amit¡yur-dh¡na-S£tra is illustrated on the south wall, with Aj¡ta¿atru to its west and sixteen meditations to its east. The north wall has an illustration of the Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra with Aj¡ta¿atru to its east and sixteen meditations painted to its west in Middle Tang. A preaching scene drawn during Song covers the space above the entrance of the east wall. The ante-room was painted in the Five Dynasties and renovated during Song/Western Xia.

Cave No. 189

Period of Construction: The Five Dynasties (renovated in Song and Qing).

Contents: The ceiling is blurred. The niche on the north wall houses seven statues cast in Qing and a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne. Three words "Ji xiang fo" (auspicious Buddha) are inscribed atop the niche. The inner layer of the east wall reveals fragmented paintings drawn during the Five Dynasties.

Cave No. 190

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated during Yuan).

Contents: The niche on the south wall has a three-panel screen with blurred figures of Buddha and two bodhisattvas. The west wall illustrates the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra; on the south and north sides are illustrated the twelve great vows and the nine inauspicious deaths respectively. Fragments of a devar¡ja are in a corner of the north wall.

Cave No. 191

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties).

Contents: The ceiling has chess-board and floral designs in the centre; the south slope shows four standing BhaiÀajyaguru Buddhas and two bodhisattvas; the west slope has a standing BhaiÀajyaguru Buddhas, the east slope portrays two standing BhaiÀajyaguru Buddhas and two bodhisattvas while the BhaiÀajyaguru and bodhisattva on the north slope have only their heads remaining. The east and west walls illustrate the S£tra of the Paradise of Maitreya and the Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra respectively; on the north and south sides of the s£tra illustration on the west wall are the twelve great vows and Aj¡ta¿atru respectively. This cave is situated inside the south wall of the ante-room of Cave No. 197.

Cave No. 192

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated during Song and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The north and south sides of the entrance on the west wall have devar¡jas. The south wall shows bodhisattvas (all blurred).

Corridor: The ceiling shows a blurred painting while the north and south walls feature bodhisattvas all drawn in Song.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling has floral designs in the centre; the four slopes are covered by decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas with a cross-legged sitting Buddha in the centre. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, Ënanda and a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne. The ceiling and slopes inside the niche have fourteen sitting Buddhas and bodhisattvas painted on the screens of its walls. Both sides of the curtains at the opening of the niche highlight Maµju¿r¢ along with flying figures, bhikÀus and donors. West-eastwards on the south wall are illustrated the Amit¡bha-S£tra and the Paradise of Maitreya. The north wall illustrates the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra and Devat¡-S£tra from west to east. On the south side of the entrance of the east wall is a portrait of Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara; on the north side is a portrait of Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara. At the lower portion of these three walls are donors (mostly female) painted in Song.

Cave No. 193

Period of Construction: Late Tang and Song.

Contents: The caisson ceiling has floral designs in the centre; the west and north slopes are painted with miniature Buddhas (both blurred). Both the north and south walls feature a preaching scene drawn in Song. The niche on the west wall has a row of miniature Buddhas painted in Late Tang on all the three walls with additional Song paintings of a preaching scene and bodhisattvas.

Cave No. 194

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during Late Tang and Western Xia).

Contents: Ante-room: Above the entrance on the west wall is a preaching scene drawn during Late Tang; on the north and south sides of the entrance is a portrait each of devar¡ja drawn during Late Tang. The south wall has a painting which is blurred. Below this are five male donors. All the above paintings have faded. The north wall features a devar¡ja, both are drawn during Late Tang. The east is the entrance to Cave No. 195.

Corridor: The ceiling shows a preaching scene. The south wall shows Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara, the north wall features Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara, both drawn during Late Tang.

Main Hall: The north slope of the ceiling has only the head of a bhikÀu left in the damaged painting. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a sitting Buddha, two each of disciples, bodhisattvas and devar¡ja cast during High Tang. The south wall has fragments of the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra. At the western end is a damaged painting of King's progression; the lower level shows portraits of sixteen male and female donors drawn during Western Xia. The north wall illustrates the Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra with Aj¡ta¿atru to the west and the sixteen meditations to the east. At the lower level are seen six female donors, five male donors drawn during High Tang; four female donors drawn during Western Xia. The lowest level has a sitting Buddha drawn during High Tang. Above the entrance of the east wall are miniature Buddhas (partially damaged); on the north and south sides of the entrance are miniature Buddhas and KÀitigarbha and Avalokite¿vara respectively.

Cave No. 195

Period of Construction: Late Tang.

Contents: Ante-room: Above the entrance of the north wall is inscribed an invocation, but the wording is illegible. On the west side of the entrance is the portrait of devar¡ja drawn during Late Tang which has also faded.

Corridor: The ceiling shows a preaching scene. The east wall has a damaged painting in a corner.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling is damaged in the centre; the north and south slopes are covered by decorative hangings, the west, north and south slopes are painted with miniature Buddhas having a preaching scene in the centre. The ceiling of the niche on the north wall has chess-board and floral designs in the centre. On the south and north slopes are four images of standing BhaiÀajyaguru Buddha and two attending bodhisattvas; the east and west slopes each have three standing BhaiÀajyaguru Buddhas and two attending bodhisattvas. KÀitigarbha is painted on one of the screens on the north wall inside the niche. The west wall of the cave has a faded depiction of Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra. Above the entrance on the south wall is a faded inscription. On the west side of the entrance is a portrait of Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara.

Cave No. 196

Period of Construction: Late Tang.

Contents: Ante-room: Above the entrance of the west wall is a painting of seven Buddhas, on the north side is the portrait of a female donor; to the north and south of the entrance are figures of Vai¿rava¸a and Vir£dhaka respectively; at the lower level are the figures of donors. The ceiling fresco is destroyed with only traces of art designs. A part of the wooden structures of Late Tang is preserved.

Corridor: The ceiling features miniature Buddhas in the centre; the north and south slopes each have three preaching scenes. Drawn on the south wall are two male donors and four attendants. On the north wall are the portraits of General Suo Xun and his son along with five attendants.

Main Hall: Placed in the central altar are statues, one each of cross-legged sitting Buddha, K¡¿yapa, Ënanda, Bodhisattva in ardha padm¡sana and devar¡ja. The screen at the back has an eleven-headed Avalokite¿vara and a bodhisattva. The caisson ceiling has scenes of Buddha attending meetings, along with bodhisattvas, miniature Buddhas and flying figures. The west wall illustrates the fight between S¡riputra and Raudr¡kÀa. On the south wall from west to east are illustrated the Saddharma-pu¸·ar¢ka-S£tra, Amit¡bha-S£tra, Suvar¸a-prabh¡sa-S£tra; below is a fifteen-panel screen with a bodhisattva painted on each panel. On the north wall west-eastwards are illustrated the Avatamsaka-S£tra, BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra and Sµutra of the Paradise of Maitreya; below is a fifteen-panel screen with a bodhisattva painted on each panel. Portraits of bodhisattvas KÀitigarbha, Avalokite¿vara and Vajra are featured above the entrance of the east wall. On the south and north sides of the entrance are illustrations of Maµju¿r¢-S£tra and Samantabhadra-S£tra respectively. The cave known as the "Cave of Dharma-Master He" was built in the Jingfu Era (892-3) of Tang.

Cave No. 197

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Song).

Contents: Ante-room: The ceiling is covered by s£tra illustrations drawn during the Five Dynasties which is damaged. The mural on the west wall is blurred. The top portion of the south wall shows the damaged painting of devar¡jas; below it are donors drawn in Middle Tang. This wall has the entrance to Cave No. 191.

Corridor: The ceiling exhibits a six-armed Avalokite¿vara drawn during the Five Dynasties. The south wall of the corridor features a portrait of Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara; portraits of five male donors are seen below. The north wall features Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara below which are seen five male donors. The north and south walls have faded Avalokite¿vara drawn during the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The lotus occupies the centre of the caisson ceiling. The four slopes have decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a sitting Buddha, a disciple and a bodhisattva. The south wall features KÀitigarbha and a bodhisattva drawn during Middle Tang. At the lower level are forty-nine miniature Buddhas and figures of two bodhisattvas painted during the Five Dynasties. The north wall illustrates the Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra with Aj¡ta¿atru to the west and sixteen meditations to the east. Seen at the lower level is an invocation which has been inscribed. On each of the two sides are a female donor and bhikÀu and three male donors. The western end reveals the figure of a bodhisattva drawn during Song. Above the entrance of the east wall is a painting of two attending bodhisattvas; on the south and north sides of the entrance are the portraits of Avalokite¿vara and Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara respectively; at the bottom is a sitting bodhisattva, all painted during Song.

Cave No. 198

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated during Song).

Contents: Ante-room: The ceiling shows a preaching scene while both on the north and south sides of the entrance on the west wall is a portrait of devar¡ja all drawn during Song.

Corridor: The ceiling shows a sitting Buddha painted during Song which has faded. The Song painting of a donor bhikÀu on both north and south walls is also faded.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling has round petalled lotus designs in the centre; the four slopes have decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The ceiling of the niche on the west wall shows chess-board and floral patterns. Painted on the four slopes of the niche ceiling are eight cross-legged sitting Buddhas, bodhisattvas and six Aupap¡dakas. The west wall inside the niche has BhaiÀajyagurus and bodhisattvas painted on the screen along with peacocks. Two devar¡jas are painted on the sides of the curtains at the opening. The south wall illustrates the Vajracchedik¡-S£tra while the north wall, the Paradise of Maitreya. Above the entrance of the east wall is the portrait of an eleven-headed Avalokit¿vara; to the south and north of the entrance are portraits of Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara and Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara. Below these portraits are illustrations of the Maµju¿r¢-S£tra and Samantabhadra-S£tra respectively.

Cave No. 199

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during Middle Tang and Western Xia).

Contents: Ante-room: The ceiling shows fragments of patterns drawn in Western Xia.

Corridor: The corridor ceiling features an Usher Buddha which is damaged.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling has floral designs drawn in High Tang; the four slopes are painted with decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall contains statue of a sitting Buddha cast in Tang. The niche has another statue of a sitting Buddha shifted here from elsewhere during Western Xia. High Tang paintings of fifteen BhaiÀajyagurus and six bodhisattvas (damaged) with art designs are painted on the ceiling and its slopes. Portraits of Avalokite¿vara, Mah¡sth¡mapr¡pta, donor bhik¦u drawn during Middle Tang are in the centre of the south wall. The east side of the wall shows six miniature Buddhas, eight bodhisattvas in lotus pond, seven sitting Buddhas painted during Middle Tang; the west side shows two portraits of Avalokite¿vara and one female donor also from Middle Tang. The north wall illustrates the Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra with Aj¡ta¿atru to the east and the sixteen meditations to the west. Above the entrance of the east wall are miniature Buddhas, a meditating Buddha in the centre, on the north and south sides of the entrance are portraits of miniature Buddhas. All these were drawn in Middle Tang. Portraits of Avalokite¿vara and KÀitigarbha at the lower level of the miniature Buddhas on the south side and a bodhisattva and devar¡ja seen below the miniature Buddhas on the north side.

Cave No. 200

Period of Construction: Middle Tang.

Contents: The ceiling shows three rabbits (joining as one) and round petalled lotus designs in the centre; the four slopes have decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas with a preaching scene in the centre. The niche on the west wall contains a statue of a cross-legged sitting Buddha and a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne. Inside the niche there are eighteen BhaiÀajyagurus with eighteen bodhisattvas painted on the slopes of the ceiling with Buddhist practices and Karma lessons on the walls. West-eastwards on the south wall are illustrations of the Amit¡yur-dhy¡na S£tra with the sixteen meditations on its east side. Below this sµutra illustration is a four-panel screen showing Aj¡ta¿atru, S£tra for Redemption from Indebtedness. On its east side and below it is a two-panel screen showing the chapter on filial piety. On the north wall west-eastwards are illustrated the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra, to its west and below it is drawn a three-panel screen showing nine inauspicious deaths; Maitreya S£tra with the illustration of Maitreyavya-karana on its west side, below this illustration is a three-panel screen narrating scenes of marriage, cultivation and bumper harvest and Maitreya returning to the city. Above the entrance of the east wall is inscribed an invocation. On the south and north sides of the entrance are portraits of Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara and Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara respectively.

Cave Nos. [ 1 - 50   |  51 - 100  |  101 - 150  |  151 - 200  |  201 - 250 ]

[ 251 - 300   |  301 - 350  |  351 - 400  |  401 - 450  |  451 - 492 ]

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