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DUNHUANG ART


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Cave Nos. [ 1 - 50   |  51 - 100  |  101 - 150  |  151 - 200  |  201 - 250 ]

[ 251 - 300   |  301 - 350  |  351 - 400  |  401 - 450  |  451 - 492 ]


A Glimpse of the Mogao Caves

 

Cave No. 301

Period of Construction: Northern Zhou (renovated during the Five Dynasties).

Contents: Ante-room: Above the entrance of the west wall in the ante-room is a portrait of KÀitigarbha, its top portion is damaged. On the south side of the entrance is a portrait of the eleven-headed Avalokite¿vara. On the north side is another painting, all these are drawn during the Five Dynasties.

Corridor: The ceiling shows a preaching scene. The north and south walls of the corridor have two bodhisattvas each drawn during the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The ceiling shows four inverted lotus flowers in the centre; the four slopes are covered by the decorative hangings. The west slope has the designs of ma¸i and pearl in lotus flanked by flying musicians; the south slope illustrates scenes from the J¡taka of Prince Sattva. Below this illustration are the celestial musicians and decorative hangings. The north slope has the story of Samaka: the west side shows Samaka offering his services to his blind parents. The east side depicts the King of Kapilavastu going to hunt. The east slope has the story of Prince Sattva feeding himself to the hungry tigress, a pagoda built in his memory. The lower portion of the east slope is covered by celestial musicians, flying figures and decorative hangings. The niche on the west wall shelters a sitting Buddha. The south wall features miniature Buddhas with a preaching scene in the centre, below are the figures of two Raudr¡kÀas. On the west side are a donor bhikÀu, seventeen male donors and a Raudr¡kÀa; the east side shows twelve female donors. During Qing a portion of the mural was damaged due to drilling of a hole. The north wall has miniature Buddhas with a preaching scene in the centre. The lower section of the west side shows three donor bhikÀus, fourteen male donors and a Raudr¡kÀa. The lower section of the east side shows eighteen bhik¦us and eight donors. The mural on the east wall features miniature Buddhas; below on the south side are the figures of three female donors, a donor, ox cart and two attendants. Three female donor figures are seen at a lower level as also a horse. On the north side at a lower level are seen two donor bhikÀus and six donors. Further below are the figures of three donor bhikÀus and three male donors. 

Cave No. 302

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during Song and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The west slope of the ceiling shows two rows of miniature Buddhas drawn during Song. A Song Dynasty invocation is inscribed on the west wall. On both sides of it are Vai¿rava¸a attending Nata's sermon. To the south of the entrance, at the top level is a portrait of Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara. The middle portion has the depiction of N¡gar¡jas paying homage to Buddha while the lower portion is blurred. Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara is on top of the north side of the entrance while the middle and lower portions have the same features as the south side. The north and south walls have a painting each drawn during Song.

Corridor: The ceiling portrays the thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokite¿vara in the centre, drawn during Song. The north and south slopes have four sitting Buddhas each painted in Song. The south wall features a male donor and his attendants. The north wall shows a female donor with attendants.

Main Hall: The central column assumes the shape of Mount Sumeru with a seven-storeyed pagoda on top, miniature Buddha on the top six storeys of the pagoda and four dragons circling the lower storey of it. The east-facing niche contains statues of Buddha, two bodhisattvas and outside the niche on either side are two bodhisattva statues. The south-facing niche also contains similar statues as the east-facing one, the statues were repaired in Qing. The west-facing niche has statues of a Buddha and two disciples which have been repaired in Qing. Figures of two Aupap¡dakas are featured on the niche wall. Outside the niche on the two sides are two bodhisattva statues. The north-facing niche is similar to the west-facing one in contents. On front portion of the east slope of the ceiling are the depictions of King Bilengkali, King áibi and below these is the story of Samaka; the top portion of the west slope carries the story of Prince Sattva and the lower portion the Sµutra of rich fields. The west wall shows celestial musicians and a glimpse of paradise. Miniature Buddhas cover the centre portion of the wall with the inner layer revealing eight bhikÀun¢s painted during Sui. The top and middle portions of the south wall are similar to the west wall. The middle level is painted with miniature Buddhas with BhaiÀajyaguru below them in the front and miniature Buddha paintings and a double chamber altar at the rear. Below them the Song painting of bhikÀus on the surface layer is damaged and fragments of Sui painting on the inner layer are exposed. The north and east walls have similar features as the other two walls. An inscription dated the fourth year of the Kaihuang Era of Sui (593) can be seen to the north side of the central column.

Cave No. 303

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The west slope of the ceiling shows cross-legged sitting Buddhas drawn in the Five Dynasties. Above the entrance of the west wall is an invocation inscribed during the Five Dynasties flanked by a bodhisattva on either side. To the south of the entrance are figures of a bodhisattva and a yakÀa while the north side of the entrance illustrates the Maitreya-S£tra with donor figures painted below. The north and south walls have paintings of a devar¡ja each.

Corridor: The south wall features a portrait of Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara drawn during Five Dynasties. The north wall has a portrait of Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara drawn during the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The central column is in the shape of Mount Sumeru. Its upper portion is a circular shaped seven-storeyed pagoda with miniature Buddhas on the top six storeys and four dragons circling the lower storey. The east-facing niche on the column contains statues of Buddha and two disciples. Painted inside the niche are the Aupap¡dakas and outside the niche on the two sides are bodhisattva statues. The north, south and west-facing niches have the same features as the east-facing one with only one disciple statue in the north-facing niche. The front portion of the east and west slopes of the ceiling illustrates the Universal Gate of Avalokite¿vara (thirty-three manifestations of Avalokite¿vara) of the Saddharma-pu¸·ar¢ka-S£tra. The rear portion of the slope is painted with decorative hangings. The four corners reveal a meditating Buddha each and these are surrounded by miniature Buddhas. The top portion of the west wall shows heavenly musicians, palace railings and walls, decorative hangings; the middle portion is covered by miniature Buddhas; the lower portion shows twenty-two donors and further below is a scenery of landscape with people at work. The top portion of the south wall has heavenly palace musicians, wall railings and decorative hangings and the middle portion is covered by miniature Buddhas.

Cave No. 304

Period of Construction: Sui (the stucco statues being renovated during Qing).

Contents: The caisson ceiling in the main hall shows four lotus flowers in the centre; the four slopes are covered by miniature Buddhas and decorative hangings, six celestial musicians, mansions with railings and walls. The circular niche on the west wall contains the statues of a sitting Buddha (its head was repaired during Qing), K¡¿yapa and Ënanda. Outside the niche, on the north and south sides are the bodhisattva statues. The north and south walls have miniature Buddhas; at the lower level are the donors four and five respectively. Above the entrance of the east wall are miniature Buddhas; two devar¡jas are on the two sides of the entrance.

Cave No. 305

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The ceiling still shows a portion of a painting drawn during the Five Dynasties. Above the entrance on the west wall are portraits of seven Buddhas painted in the Five Dynasties and an invocation which is inscribed is flanked by bodhisattva figures. The south side of the entrance illustrates the Samantabhadra S£tra; tthe north side illustrates the Maµju¿r¢ S£tra drawn during the Five Dynasties. The north wall shows devar¡ja and the south wall a painting, both drawn during the Five Dynasties.

Corridor: The ceiling features KÀitigarbha drawn in the Five Dynasties. A portrait of Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara is featured on the south wall and the north wall has a portrait of Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara, both drawn during the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The square shape column in the centre has the statues of a Buddha, two each of disciples and standing bodhisattvas. On the east side of the column are the lonicera border designs; below are two donor bhikÀus and eight male donors. The south-facing side of the column shows the lonicera border designs with eight female and three male donors. The west-facing side of the column shows the same border designs; below are eight donor bhikÀus. The north-facing side shows ten female and two male donors below with the same border designs seen on the top level. The centre of the ceiling depicts four lotuses and flying figures; the four slopes have the decorative hangings. The centre of the east and west slopes has the ma¸i flanked by eight flying figures. The west wall features miniature Buddhas. The circular niche of the west wall contains the statues two each of disciples and bodhisattvas and a cross-legged sitting Buddha. The south wall depicts miniature Buddhas. The circular niche contains Qing statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, disciple and two bodhisattvas. The north wall has the same features. Above the entrance on the east wall are miniature Buddhas. The north and south sides of the entrance have miniature Buddhas with a preaching scene in the centre; below these are nineteen donors; further below are decorative hangings. This cave was constructed in the fifth year of Kaihuang Era of Sui (594).

Cave No. 306

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Western Xia).

Contents: Ante-room: Above the entrance of the south wall is a preaching scene drawn in Western Xia; above the preaching scene is a flying figure drawn in the Five Dynasties. On the east side of the entrance are the figures of two bodhisattvas; on the west side are portrayed the Aupap¡daka Kum¡ras.

Corridor: The ceiling has floral designs. The top portions of the east and west walls have two cross-legged sitting Buddhas each; the middle portion shows “Damoduoluo“i.e., Dharmottara or Dharmtr¡rta, an ancient Indian commentator, according to the Dunhuang Academy.

Main Hall: The front and the rear portions of the north and south slopes of the ceiling in the main hall have floral designs. The top portion of the south wall is covered by decorative hangings, the mid portion has a preaching scene. The top portion of the east and west walls is painted with decorative hangings. The middle portion illustrates the Amit¡bha-S£tra. Above the entrance of the north wall are the seven Buddhas and decorative hangings; to the east of the entrance are decorative hangings while the west side shows the bodhisattvas. This cave is north-facing and was originally one of the caves adjacent to Cave No. 307.

Cave No. 307

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during the Five Dynasties, Western Xia, and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The west slope of the ceiling has floral patterns; the lower level of the slope shows damaged paintings from Sui and the Five Dynasties. Above the entrance of the west wall are decorative hangings and a preaching scene; the north and south sides of the entrance illustrate the Sukh¡vat¢-S£tra which is blurred at the bottom. The south wall is Cave No. 306 and the north wall is Cave No. 308.

Corridor: The centre of the ceiling shows floral designs; the north and south slopes are covered by decorative hangings. The north and south walls feature a BhaiÀajyaguru Buddha.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows floral designs and the rear portion shows coiled dragons with round petalled lotus in the centre. The niche on the west wall shelters a set of nine Buddha statues (Buddha, four disciples and four bodhisattvas) cast in Qing along with a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne. The top portions of the north and south walls are painted with decorative hangings; the middle portion has two scenes from the Sukh¡vat¢-S£tra. There is a preaching scene above the entrance of the east wall; the north and south sides of the entrance have the same feature.

Cave No. 308

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Western Xia).

Contents: Ante-room: Above the entrance of the north wall is a preaching scene. On the east side are the figures of two bodhisattvas; portraits of Aupap¡dakas are shown on the west side of the entrance. The west wall reveals a preaching scene drawn during the Five Dynasties which is now peeling off. The lower level shows a damaged painting drawn during Sui.

Corridor: The ceiling shows floral patterns in the centre; the east and west slopes are covered by decorative hangings. The east and west walls have once again a Dharmottara each according to Dunhuang Academy.

Main Hall: The ceiling shows floral patterns. The top portion of the north wall has decorative hangings, the middle section shows a preaching scene. The top portions of the east and west walls are painted with decorative hangings, the middle portion illustrates the Sukh¡vat¢-S£tra. Above the entrance of the south wall are the decorative hangings and lotus flanked by the figure of a bodhisattva on either side. This cave is south-facing.

Cave No. 309

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The west wall shows three Buddha figures. An invocation is inscribed below these figures flanked by bodhisattvas on either side. On the north and south sides of the entrance are the portraits of Maµju¿r¢ and Samantabhadra respectively. Both these are blurred.

Corridor: The ceiling carries floral patterns in the centre; the north and south slopes are covered by decorative hangings. Both the north and south walls show fragments of the portrait of BhaiÀajyaguru Buddha.

Main Hall: The front portion of the east and west slopes of the ceiling in the main hall show citron lines and in the citron is shown passion flower (dahlia). The rear portion displays floral designs. The west wall has a circular niche sheltering a set of five cross-legged sitting Buddhas. The inner wall of the niche shows the a flaming halo flanked by four disciples and two flying figures. Painted on the niche's lintel are the lotus-born Aupap¡dakas. A bodhisattva figure is painted on both the north and south sides outside the niche. A preaching scene is illustrated on each of the north and south walls; donor figures are seen below. Above the entrance of the east wall are the portraits of seven Buddhas. To the north and south are the figures of a six-armed bodhisattva with donor figures below. The niche contains paintings drawn during Sui which have been redone in Western Xia.

Cave No. 310

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: Corridor: The ceiling shows lotus flowers in the centre; the north and south slopes feature a canopy of bodhi-ratna. The north and south walls are painted with bodhisattvas.

Main Hall: The centre of the ceiling has coiled dragon designs. The four slopes are covered with floral designs. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a sitting Buddha, a bodhisattva cast in Sui and statues of a bodhisattva and two disciples cast in Qing. The south wall shows a preaching Buddha and below it are the donors. The north wall has an inclined-sitting meditating Buddha with female donors at a lower level. Above the entrance of the east wall is inscribed an invocation flanked by two bodhisattvas on either side. On the south and north sides of the entrance are the figures of Vir£dhaka and Vai¿rava¸a respectively.

Cave No. 311

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: Above the entrance of the west wall is a mural showing Vai¿rava¸a and Avalokite¿vara attending Nata's sermon drawn during the Five Dynasties. There are damaged paintings drawn in Sui to the north and south of the entrance.

Corridor: The surface layer of the centre of the ceiling has a painting drawn in the Five Dynasties. The lower level exhibits lotus drawn in Sui; the north and south slopes have each three cross-legged sitting Buddhas drawn in the Five Dynasties and the north and south walls have each a male donor also drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling shows lotus flowers and dancing figures; the four slopes are covered by miniature Buddhas and decorative hangings in the corners. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, two disciples and four bodhisattvas cast in Sui. The north and south walls are painted with miniature Buddhas having a preaching scene in the centre. At the lower level are portraits of bodhisattvas drawn during the Five Dynasties. Above the entrance and to the north and south of the entrance on the east wall are miniature Buddha figures; below are male and female donors drawn during the Five Dynasties.

Cave No. 312

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated in the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Corridor: The ceiling shows traces of a painting drawn during the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The east and west slopes of the ceiling are covered by miniature Buddhas; the niche on the west wall contains statues of a Buddha and two disciples cast in Qing. The south and north walls feature miniature Buddhas. Miniature Buddhas cover the space above the entrance of the east wall. The north and south sides of the entrance portray a bodhisattva each drawn during the Five Dynasties.

Cave No. 313

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated in Late Tang, Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: Corridor: The ceiling shows auspicious symbols in the centre; the north and south slopes have portraits of five Buddhas each.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling has lotus designs in the centre. The four slopes are covered by miniature Buddhas and decorative hangings in the corners. The west wall has statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha and two bodhisattvas cast in Late Tang and statues of two disciples cast in Qing. The scene of Bodhisattva Maitreya preaching dharma adorns the south wall. The north wall features a preaching scene. Above the entrance of the east wall are portraits of seven Buddhas; on the north side of the entrance is a picture of devar¡ja.

Cave No. 314

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated in Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: A portrait of KÀitigarbha and ten kings of hell decorates the space above the entrance of the west wall; on the north and south sides of the entrance are portraits of Maµju¿r¢ and Samantabhadra. All these were drawn during Western Xia.

Corridor: The ceiling shows four lotus flowers in the centre. The north and south slopes have decorative hangings and the south wall has a portrait of BhaiÀajyaguru Buddha drawn in Western Xia.

Main Hall: The ceiling shows Aupap¡dakas born out of lotus in the centre. The four slopes are covered by hanging curtains and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha cast in Sui and of four disciples and four bodhisattvas cast in Qing. The north and south walls have symmetrical paintings of miniature Buddhas on top and preaching scene below. Portraits of miniature Buddhas and seven Buddhas are painted above the entrance of the east wall; on the south and north sides of the entrance are the scenes of preaching under trees. Along the entrance are the pictures of flowers and clouds painted during Western Xia.

Cave No. 315

Period of Construction: Sui (statues being renovated in Qing).

Contents: Only decorative hangings on the western corner of the ceiling design remain. Miniature Buddhas painted on the west slope have fade. The same on the south slope has fragment in a corne. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a sitting Buddha and two bodhisattvas. The south and north walls feature miniature buddhas.

Cave No. 316

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated in Yuan).

Contents: The west wall shows a shallow alter without painting.

Cave No. 317

Period of Construction: Sui Dynasty.

Contents: Fragments of miniature buddhas are on the west slope of the ceiling. The niche on the west wall are painted with designs of lonicera and lotus flowers. The niche's lintel is damaged. Outside the niche, on the north side is the portrait of a bodhisattva.

Cave No. 318

Period of Construction: Sui Dynasty.

Contents: The west slope of the ceiling is covered by miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall shelters a statue of Buddha cast in Qing. The west wall inside the niche displays a flaming halo and two flying figures; both the north and south walls have a bodhisattva figure and sketches of five disciples without colouring. The north and south walls are partially covered by miniature Buddhas.

Cave No. 319

Period of Construction: High Tang.

Contents: The ceiling has three flower clusters in the centre; the four slopes have the floral border designs. The north, south and west slopes are painted with the portraits of miniature Buddhas. There is a horse-hoof shaped altar and on it are the statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, two each of disciples, bodhisattvas and devar¡jas; below their feet is a depiction of Earth God. Halo is carved in the centre of the west wall in relief with three Buddha disciples on both sides. The north and south walls have miniature Buddhas. The western end shows figures of two bodhisattvas, a disciple and a halo.

Cave No. 320

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during Middle Tang, Song and Yuan).

Contents: Corridor: The ceiling shows floral designs drawn in Song as the central painting. The north and south slopes have decorative hangings. The south wall features a bodhisattva drawn in Song.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling has peony flowers in the centre; the four slopes are covered by decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of Buddha, disciple and two bodhisattvas. The ceiling of the niche has a scene of Maitreya preaching the dharma. The south wall features miniature Buddhas having an illustration of the Amit¡bha-S£tra in the centre (was taken away by an American in 1924). Below this are seventeen male donors drawn in Song. The north wall features the Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra. On its east is Aj¡ta¿atru and on its west are the sixteen meditations; the east end has a bodhisattva and a donor bhikÀu drawn in Middle Tang; the west end shows a bodhisattva also drawn in Middle Tang. Below these are seventeen female donors drawn in Song. Above the entrance on the east wall are miniature Buddhas drawn in Song. To the south of the entrance are two alms-offering bodhisattvas drawn in Song; below them are two male donors; to the north of the entrance are two alms-offering bodhisattvas drawn in Song and a bodhisattva drawn in Yuan.

Cave No. 321

Period of Construction: Early Tang (renovated in the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The south side of the entrance on the west wall illustrates the Naraka-S£tra and this peeled off in 1965. The north side has a damaged painting drawn during the Five Dynasties and below this is a painting drawn in Early Tang.

Corridor: The ceiling shows the canopy of bodhi-ratna in the centre; the north and south slopes are covered by decorative hangings drawn in the Five Dynasties. The south wall features the Samantabhadra-S£tra and north wall features Maµju¿r¢-S£tra both drawn during the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The ceiling shows floral designs. Miniature Buddhas cover the four slopes. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a Buddha, two warriors cast in Early Tang (repaired in Qing), and two statues each of disciples and bodhisattvas cast in Qing. The south wall illustrates the Ratnavarsha-S£tra; below it are the portraits of male donors drawn during the Five Dynasties. The top and middle layers show a preaching Buddha flanked by a cross-legged sitting and preaching Buddha. A standing Buddha figure is to the south and middle of entrance, at the lower level are the portraits of donors (blurred) drawn during the Five Dynasties; on the north and middle of the entrance is the portrait of an eleven-headed Avalokite¿vara with male donors below, drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Cave No. 322

Period of Construction: Early Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties).

Contents: Corridor: The ceiling shows cross-legged sitting Buddhas in the centre; the north and south slopes feature two cross-legged sitting Buddhas each.

Main Hall: Grapes with vine designs are on the ceiling while four celestial mucians fly around decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, two each of disciples, bodhisattvas and devar¡jas. A preaching scene is the central painting in a miniature Buddha depiction on the south wall. The north wall features miniature Buddhas with the S£tra for Amit¡bha in the centre. There are three preaching scenes above the entrance of the east wall; on the south side is a standing BhaiÀajyaguru, on the north side are pictures drawn during the Five Dynasties of a bodhisattva, four sitting Buddhas and bodhisattvas.

Cave No. 323

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties, Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The west slope of the ceiling shows floral designs drawn during Western Xia. To the south of the entrance on the west wall is illustrated the Samantabhadra-S£tra; to the north is illustrated the Maµju¿r¢-S£tra, both these are drawn in Western Xia; at a lower level are miniature Buddhas drawn in the Five Dynasties and a damaged painting drawn in High Tang. The south wall is Cave No. 324, a damaged painting drawn in Western Xia remains. The north wall is Cave No. 325, and has a preaching scene also drawn in Western Xia.

Corridor: The ceiling shows floral designs in the centre. The north and south walls have each three bodhisattvas.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling shows floral patterns; the four slopes have the decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of sitting Buddha, two each of disciples and bodhisattvas cast in High Tang. The north and south walls feature the miniature Buddhas. Traces of the History of Buddhism can be seen in the middle portion of these walls. Above the entrance of the east wall are portraits of AkÀobhya, Maitreya Bodhisattva etc. drawn during the Five Dynasties.

Cave No. 324

Period of Construction: Renovated during Western Xia.

Contents: The centre of the ceiling has floral designs with the four slopes also showing floral designs. The ceiling of the niche on the south wall shows floral designs. The top portion of the west wall is covered by decorative hangings and the middle portion displays a preaching scene. This cave is north-facing.

Cave No. 325

Period of Construction: The Five Dynasties (renovated during Western Xia).

Contents: The ceiling shows floral designs in the centre, with three layers of border designs of rhombus and four-petalled flowers. The ceiling of the niche on the north wall shows floral designs with four-petalled flowers on the four slopes. The top portions of the east and west walls have decorative hangings, the middle layer a preaching scene and the bottom layer has a flask shaped entrance with precious offerings painted on the inner side. This cave is south-facing and is positioned on the north wall of the ante-room of Cave No. 323.

Cave No. 326

Period of Construction: Western Xia.

Contents: Corridor: The ceiling shows floral designs; two slopes are covered by decorative hangings. The north and south walls have each five alms-offering bodhisattvas.

Main Hall: The centre of the ceiling has the cross-cudgel designs, the four slopes are painted with round petalled flowers, circular lines and garlands and hanging curtains, chess-board and floral designs. The niche on the west wall shows three standing Buddhas. Painted on the top portion of the north and south walls are decorative hangings, the middle portion shows a preaching scene and below is shown a flask-like entrance with precious offerings painted on the inner side. Above the entrance of the east wall are drawn decorative hangings and a preaching scene is shown below. The north and south sides of the entrance have a bodhisattva each.

Cave No. 327

Period of Construction: Western Xia (the stucco statues being redone in Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The south side of the entrance of the west wall illustrates the S£tra for Maµju¿r¢.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling shows carvings of coiled dragons, lotus flowers and circular lines. The four slopes are covered by chess-board patterns with floral designs, circular lines, floral motifs,decorative hangings and flying figures. The niche on the west wall shelters the statues of seven Buddhas and four bodhisattvas, two statues of bodhisattvas cast in Tang brought from elsewhere and a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne. The north and south walls feature miniature Buddhas; below these is shown a flask-like entrance, the inner side of which shows precious offerings. The north and south sides of the entrance on the east wall are painted with miniature Buddhas.

Cave No. 328

Period of Construction: Early Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Western Xia).

Contents: Ante-room: The west slope of the ceiling shows citron fruit designs. Above the entrance of the west wall is a preaching scene (blurred) drawn during Western Xia. To the north and south of the entrance and on the surface layer are all paintings drawn during Western Xia which have become blurred. The lower layer has a scene of the N¡gar¡jas paying homage to Buddha drawn during the Five Dynasties. The north wall has portraits of devar¡jas painted in the Five Dynasties;.

Corridor: The ceiling shows chess-board patterns and floral designs; the north and south slopes are covered by decorative hangings. Both the north and south walls have three bodhisattvas each drawn during Western Xia.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling in the main hall shows the cross-cudgel and lotus designs; the four slopes have the circular lines and floral motifs, the chess-board and floral patterns. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, two each of disciples, bodhisattvas and bodhisattvas carved in Early Tang. Outside the niche, on the platform are two bodhisattva statues one on each side, below the niche and platform is a painting showing the vessels for worship and ten bodhisattvas drawn during Western Xia. The top portions of the north and south walls show the decorative hangings, the middle portion illustrates the Sukh¡vat¢ S£tra and the lower one shows a flask shaped entrance, the inner side of which reveals precious offerings. The western end has a depiction of a bodhisattva drawn during Western Xia; flowers are drawn at the lower level. The Sukh¡vat¢ S£tra drawn during Western Xia is illustrated above the entrance of the east wall; to the north and south of the entrance are seven bodhisattvas drawn in Western Xia; the lower level shows a flask-like entrance, inside are precious offerings.

Cave No. 329

Period of Construction: Early Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The west slope of the ceiling features the Avalokite¿vara-S£tras of Amoghap¡¿a, the thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokite¿vara and the Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara drawn during the Five Dynasties. Above the entrance on the west wall is inscribed an invocation flanked by the figures of Vai¿rava¸a attending Nata's sermon on either side. On the north and south sides of the entrance are portraits of eight N¡gar¡jas paying homage to Buddha. Traces of the figures of disciples and bodhisattvas are seen on the north and south walls.

Corridor: The ceiling has a narrative painting in the centre; the north and south slopes are adorned with five cross-legged sitting Buddhas each drawn during the Five Dynasties. The south wall features three donor bhikÀus and the north wall a male donor, both drawn during the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling depicts lotus and flying figures. The four slopes are covered by decorative hangings, three musicians and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall has statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, two disciples and four bodhisattvas cast in Early Tang. The south wall illustrates the Amit¡bha-S£tra, portraits of three bhikÀun¢s and twenty-three female donors drawn during the Five Dynasties are seen below. The north wall illustrates the Maitreya-S£tra (two sections of the painting had been looted by an American); shown below are the portraits of seventeen male donors drawn during the Five Dynasties. Four preaching scenes decorate the space above the entrance on the east wall. On the south side is a preaching scene with one each of female and male donors. Below are drawn donor ox carts and female donors. On the north side of the entrance is a preaching scene; below it are horses and male donors.

Cave No. 330

Period of Construction: Western Xia (statues being redone during Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The ceiling shows a damaged painting. The north walls features a devar¡ja drawn during Western Xia.

Corridor: Paintings of Western Xia on the ceiling are damaged, only fragments remain.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling shows floral designs. The east slope has floral motifs, cloud designs and precious pearl patterns. The west wall bears statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha and two disciples cast in Western Xia and repaired in Qing. The north, south and west walls each display a preaching scene; above the entrance of the east wall are painted the utensils used for worship. The north and south sides of the entrance are painted with flowering trees.

Cave No. 331

Period of Construction: Early Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The west slope of the ceiling features three preaching scenes drawn during the Five Dynasties. Above the entrance on the west wall are the portraits of KÀitigarbha R¡ja and “Moon-and-Water“ Avalokite¿vara also drawn during the Five Dynasties. Both the north and south sides of the entrance depict the eight categories of supernatural beings. Both these depictions are blurred with the one on the south side having been stolen by an American. The north and south walls have portraits of devar¡jas drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Corridor: The ceiling displays an eleven-headed Avalokite¿vara in the centre drawn in the Five Dynasties. Both the north and south slopes have six cross-legged sitting Buddhas. The surface layer of the north and south walls shows donor figures drawn during the Five Dynasties; the lower portion features devar¡jas drawn during Early Tang.

Main Hall: The centre of the ceiling shows peony flowers; the four slopes exhibit miniature Buddhas and decorative hangings; the top portions of the east and south slopes of the ceiling show three flying figures each. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, two disciples and two bodhisattvas, two devar¡jas cast in Early Tang and repaired in Qing, two statues of bodhisattvas carved in Qing. The south wall illustrates the Maitreya-S£tra, below it are nineteen female donors and twenty-seven female attendants. The north wall illustrates the Amit¡bha-S£tra; below it are the male donors. An illustration of the Saddharma-pu4·ar¢ka S£tra is seen above the entrance of the east wall. On the north and south sides of the entrance are preaching scenes; the lower portion displays the donor ox carts.

Cave No. 332

Period of Construction: Early Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties, Yuan and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The west slope of the ceiling shows portraits of Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara and the thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokite¿vara drawn during the Five Dynasties. N¡gar¡jas paying homage to Buddha are shown on the north and south sides of the entrance. The north and south walls feature disciples, bodhisattvas and devar¡jas (blurred).

Corridor: The ceiling shows portrait of a six-armed Avalokite¿vara in the centre. The north and south slopes are covered by decorative hangings. The south wall illustrates the Ma1ju¿r¢-S£tra drawn during the Five Dynasties, below this sµutra illustration are portraits of three donors and two attendants drawn during Yuan and three donors drawn in the Five Dynasties. The north wall illustrates the Samantabhadra-S£tra drawn during the Five Dynasties; below it are two female donors and one attendant drawn in Yuan and three donors drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The east-facing side of the central column contains statues of a Buddha and two standing bodhisattvas; painted on the top portion are the figures of Maµju¿r¢ and Samantabhadra. A portrait of Vairocana Buddha is seen on the south-facing side of the column while the west- facing side shows that of BhaiÀajyaguru Buddha and finally the north-facing side features a preaching scene on Mount G¤dhrak¡ta. The front portion on the east slope of the ceiling depicts miniature Buddhas, the middle portion of the west slope has a painting of á¡kyamuni and Prabhµutaratna and the north and south slopes have miniature Buddhas. The rear portion also reveals miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall houses statues of the Nirv¡¸a Buddha and two bodhisattvas. The ceiling of the niche shows flying figures and whirling forests. The front portion of the south wall shows a Buddha statue and a set of standing bodhisattvas. The top portion of the south wall has two paintings showing Buddha attending sermon. The rear portion illustrates the Nirv¡¸a-S£tra; the female donors are seen at a lower level. The front portion of the north wall has the same features as the front portion of the south wall. The rear portion has illustration of the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra with the male donors below. Above the entrance of the east wall is Avalokite¿vara of Mount Potalaka. On the south side of the entrance are fifty bodhisattvas; below them are three donor bhikÀus; on the north side is featured a sermon at Mount G¤dhrak£ta; below it are three donor bhikÀus; along the entrance are the portraits of two bodhisattvas drawn in the Five Dynasties. This cave was renovated in the first year of Wuzhou Shengli Era (698). A tablet stating its history has been removed from this cave.

Cave No. 333

Period of Construction: Early Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The surface layer of the west slope of the ceiling shows a damaged painting drawn during Song; the lower level has another damaged painting drawn during the Five Dynasties. To the north of the entrance on the west wall is a portrait of Vai¿rava¸a.

Main Hall: The ceiling has a lotus design in the centre with the four slopes showing the decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The west wall has a statue of cross-legged sitting Buddha, two each of disciples and bodhisattvas cast in Early Tang and a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne. Along the throne are figures of male and female donors drawn during the Five Dynasties. The south wall features figures of six bodhisattvas and one disciple with five male donors drawn during the Five Dynasties. The north wall has similar paintings with the difference in the number of female donors, also drawn during the Five Dynasties. Above the entrance of the east wall are miniature Buddhas, to the south is a disciple figure along with eight male and female donors drawn during the Five Dynasties; the north side shows a disciple and nine female and male donors.

Cave No. 334

Period of Construction: Early Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: Above the entrance on the west wall is an invocation inscribed during the Five Dynasties. The north side of the entrance illustrates the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra showing Vimalak¢rti and the south side shows Maµju¿r¢ from the same s£tra. The south wall illustrates the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra drawn during the Five Dynasties; the west side shows the twelve great vows. The north wall illustrates the Amit¡yur-dhy¡na-S£tra with the sixteen meditations illustrated at the west end.

Corridor: On the ceiling is painted legendary stories prevailing in the Five Dynasties such as Vaai¿ravana churning the sea etc. The lower layer shows miniature Buddhas drawn during Early Tang; both the north and south slopes feature the auspicious symbols drawn during the Five Dynasties. The north and south walls of the corridor have female and male donors respectively drawn during the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The ceiling has coiled dragon designs in the centre. The four slopes have floral motifs and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a Buddha, two each of disciples, bodhisattvas and devar¡jas cast in Early Tang. Outside the niche on the north and south sides of the platform are statues of heavenly beast. On the ceiling of the niche is a preaching scene. The top portion of the south wall displays miniature Buddhas, the middle portion the Sukh¡vat¢-S£tra and lower portion the female donors. The top portion of the north wall shows miniature Buddha figures, Amit¡bha S£tra in the middle and male donors at the bottom. Above the entrance of the east wall is a portrait of eleven-headed Avalokite¿vara flanked by two bodhisattvas on each side; on the north and south sides of the entrance are miniature Buddhas; the north side shows donor horse carriages below and the south side shows donor ox-carts.

Cave No. 335

Period of Construction: Early Tang (renovated during Middle Tang, Song, Yuan and Qing Dynasties).

Contents: Ante-room: The west slope of ceiling features a portrait of the thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokite¿vara flanked by the portraits of Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara and Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara on both sides. Above the entrance of west wall is a portion of a damaged painting drawn during Song. On the north and south sides of the entrance is illustrated the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra. The two corners of the south wall reveal damaged paintings drawn during Middle Tang and Song. The centre of the wall is the entrance to Cave No. 336. The north wall features a damaged painting in a corner drawn in Song. Corridor: The ceiling shows BhaiÀajyaguru Buddha drawn in Middle Tang. The south wall features a donor bhikÀu and the north wall a preaching scene, both these are drawn in Middle Tang. The lower portion of the north wall is the entrance to Cave No. 337.

Main Hall: The ceiling shows peony flowers in the centre; the four slopes are covered by floral motifs, decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha and a disciple cast in Tang and statues of a disciple and four bodhisattvas cast in Qing. The west wall illustrates the Amit¡bha-S£tra; the north wall features the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra. Above the entrance of the east wall is the portrait of Amit¡bha Buddha. Five preaching scenes, the BhaiÀajyaguru Buddha and a portion of miniature Buddhas are seen on the south side of the entrance. The north side has a preaching scene drawn during Middle Tang and below it are the figures of four bodhisattvas painted in Yuan. This cave has three inscriptions: onr dated year 686 above the entrance, the second on the west wall dated 703, the third noting its being rebuilt in the Shengli Era(698-9) by Zhang Siyi.

Cave No. 336

Period of Construction: Late Tang.

Contents: The centre of the ceiling shows floral designs; the four slopes are covered by decorative hangings and floral motifs. The south, east and west slopes feature miniature Buddhas. The south wall has a portrait of Avalokite¿vara, the west wall of Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara, the east wall of Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara. This cave is on the south wall of the ante-room of Cave No. 335 and is south-facing.

Cave No. 337

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties).

Contents: The ceiling has coiled-dragon and floral designs in the centre. The four slopes show the floral motifs and decorative hangings. A corner of the east slope has miniature Buddhas; the north, south and west slopes feature miniature Buddhas with a cross-legged sitting Buddha in the centre. The ceiling of the niche on the north wall is painted with miniature Buddhas. The west wall illustrates the Amit¡yus-S£tra with Aj¡ta¿atru on the north side and sixteen meditations on the south side. The east wall illustrates the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra with a depiction of nine inauspicious deaths on the south side and twelve great vows on the north side.

Cave No. 338

Period of Construction: Early Tang (renovated in Late Tang and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The ceiling shows miniature Buddhas drawn during Early Tang, a portion was later supplemented during Late Tang. Above the entrance of the west wall is a portrait of eleven-headed Avalokite¿vara drawn during Late Tang flanked by scenes of Vai¿rava¸a attending Nata's sermon on either side. On the north and south sides of the entrance are devar¡jas drawn in Late Tang. The south and north walls feature the thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokite¿vara and thousand-armed Maµju¿r¢ with a bowl in each hand respectively.

Corridor: The centre of the ceiling illustrates the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra. The north and south slopes have each a set of five cross-legged sitting BhaiÀajyaguru Buddhas. The north and south walls feature male donors, one on the north wall and three on the south wall, the north wall also shows two donor bhikÀus. All the paintings in the corridor are drawn in Late Tang.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling shows floral designs, the four slopes are adorned with miniature Buddhas and decorative hangings in the corners. The niche on the west wall contains a statue of a sitting Buddha cast in Late Tang and statues two each of disciples and bodhisattvas cast in Qing. The north and south walls display miniature Buddhas with preaching scene in the centre; below are portraits of bodhisattvas and donors drawn in Late Tang. Above the entrance of the east wall is a preaching scene. On the south and north sides of the entrance are miniature Buddhas; below them are male and female donors drawn in Late Tang.

Cave No. 339

Period of Construction: Early Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties, Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The ceiling is covered by miniature Buddhas painted during the Five Dynasties with a preaching scene in the centre. Above the entrance on the west wall is inscribed an invocation; on the south side of the entrance is a portrait of devar¡ja and the north side has a portrait of Vai¿rava¸a both drawn during the Five Dynasties. The south wall features a portrait of Maµju¿r¢ while the north wall has one of Samantabhadra, both drawn in Western Xia.

Corridor: The ceiling shows floral designs in the centre drawn during Western Xia. The north and south walls feature two bodhisattvas each.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling shows floral designs; the four slopes are covered by miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of two Buddhas and two disciples cast in Qing. The south and north walls feature miniature Buddhas with a preaching scene in the centre. The lower portion of the south wall has portraits of male donors and that of the north wall shows figures of female donors, both drawn during the Five Dynasties. Above the entrance and on the south and north sides of the entrance on the east wall are miniature Buddhas.

Cave No. 340

Period of Construction: Early Tang (renovated during Middle and Late Tang and Yuan and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: Above the entrance of the west wall is a portrait of Vai¿rava¸a attending Nata's sermon. To the south and north of the entrance are the preaching scenes; below these scenes are N¡gar¡jas paying homage to Buddha. The south wall is partially covered by damaged figures of bodhisattvas and disciples.

Corridor: The centre of the ceiling shows traces of the history of Buddhism; the south slope has seven auspicious symbols and the north slope features six auspicious symbols both drawn in Late Tang. The north and south walls feature damaged portraits of a female donor and donor bhikÀu respectively, both these are drawn in Late Tang.

Main Hall: The centre of the ceiling shows floral designs. The four slopes are covered by miniature Buddhas and decorative hangings. The niche on the west wall contains statues of Buddha, two disciples and two bodhisattvas cast in Early Tang and statues of two bodhisattvas cast in Qing. The north and south walls are covered by miniature Buddhas with an illustration of the Sukh¡vat¢-S£tra in the centre. Above the entrance of the east wall is a portrait of eleven-headed Avalokite¿vara and six bodhisattvas drawn during Early Tang. On the south side of the entrance are painted two standing Buddhas, a bodhisattva and ten miniature Buddhas; below these are portraits of miniature Buddhas drawn during Late Tang; paintings of three Buddhas and three cross-legged sitting Buddhas drawn in Yuan, to the north of the entrance paintings of a Buddha and two bodhisattvas drawn during Yuan; below it is a painting of two bodhisattvas drawn during Middle Tang.

Cave No. 341

Period of Construction: Early Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The west slope of the ceiling shows three illustrations of Avalokite¿vara-S£tra drawn during the Five Dynasties; above the entrance of the west wall is inscribed an invocation. The north and south sides of the entrance show the scene of Vai¿rava¸a attending Nata's sermon. The north wall has a painting drawn during the Five Dynasties, at the lower layer are miniature Buddhas drawn during Tang.

Corridor: The ceiling has a portrait of the three-headed and six-armed Avalokite¿vara; the north and south slopes have four standing Buddhas each drawn during the Five Dynasties. The north and south walls feature female and male donors respectively, both drawn during the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The ceiling shows floral designs and floating clouds in the centre; the four slopes having decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, two disciples and four bodhisattvas cast in Early Tang. The south and north walls illustrate the Amit¡bha-S£tra and Maitreya-S£tra respectively. The top portion of the east wall shows preaching scene drawn during Early Tang flanked by portraits of eight-armed Avalokite¿vara and bodhisattvas. Above the entrance is a picture of Buddha preaching the dharma drawn during Early Tang flanked by eight-armed Avalokite¿vara and five bodhisattvas. Above the entrance is a flying figure; to the north and south of the entrance are preaching scenes, all these are drawn during the Five Dynasties; seen at a lower level are male donors on the south side and female donors and two attendants on the north side.

Cave No. 342

Period of Construction: Early Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Corridor: The centre of the ceiling shows traces of paintings of Buddhist history; the north and south slopes feature auspicious symbols drawn during the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The centre of the ceiling shows floral designs drawn during Early Tang; the four slopes are covered by floral motifs, decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas drawn during Early Tang. The niche on the west wall contains a statue of Buddha cast in Early Tang, statues of disciples and fourteen bodhisattvas repaired in Qing. The fight between S¡riputra and Raudr¡kÀa is illustrated on the south wall; the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra is illustrated on the north wall; below it are bodhisattvas. The theme of the painting above the entrance on the east wall is not clear. The south and north sides of the entrance on the east wall illustrate the Avalokite¿vara-S£tra; below it are donors drawn during the Five Dynasties.

Cave No. 343

Period of Construction: Late Tang.

Contents: The centre of the ceiling in the main hall shows floral designs and parrots; the four slopes are covered by decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The east wall illustrates the Amit¡yus-S£tra with Aj¡ta¿atru to the north and the sixteen meditations to the south respectively. The north wall illustrates the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra with the twelve great vows to the south and nine inauspicious deaths to the north respectively.

Cave No. 344

Period of Construction: Tang (renovated in Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The top portion of the north wall shows decorative hangings and the Sukh¡vat¢ S£tra; below these are precious offerings.

Corridor: The centre of the ceiling shows floral designs; the north and south slopes are covered by decorative hangings.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling features coiled dragons; the four slopes are painted with circular lines, floral motifs, chess-board patterns, decorative hangings and flying figures. The niche on the west wall contains statue of issue-giving goddess cast in Qing, rockery and pavilions. The north and south walls feature miniature Buddhas; at a lower level are precious offerings. Above the entrance and on the north and south sides of the entrance on the east wall are miniature Buddhas; below these on each side are shown precious offerings.

Cave No. 345

Period of Construction: Late Tang (renovated in Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The ceiling has four of the seven Buddhas drawn in the Five Dynasties. The west wall is partially covered by decorative hangings drawn in the Five Dynasties. The south wall is Cave No. 346.

Corridor: The ceiling displays history of Khotan Buddhism drawn in High Tang. The north and south walls feature hanging curtains and three donor bhikÀus respectively, both drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling in the main hall shows coiled dragon and round petalled lotus flowers. The four slopes show circular lines, floral motifs, chess-board with floral designs and flyin figures. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of cross-legged sitting Buddha and a disciple cast in High Tang and of a disciple and four bodhisattvas cast in Qing. The north and south walls feature the miniature Buddhas. The west portion of each wall shows halo and flower patterns. Above the entrance and on the north and south sides of the entrance on the east wall are miniature Buddhas.

Cave No. 346

Period of Construction: The Five Dynasties.

Contents: The south wall features a portrait of an archer drawn during the Five Dynasties.

Cave No. 347

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties, Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The north side of the entrance on the west wall shows a damaged painting drawn in the Five Dynasties. The north wall features devar¡jas also drawn in the Five Dynasties. Below them are female donors.

Corridor: The centre of the ceiling shows chess-board patterns and floral designs. The south wall is the entrance of Cave No. 348. To the west of the entrance is a damaged painting of bodhisattva drawn in Western Xia. The north wall is the entrance of Cave No. 349 and to the west of the entrance is a damaged painting of bodhisattva drawn in Western Xia.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling shows coiled dragons; the four slopes are covered by chess-board patterns, floral designs and decorative hangings. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, two disciples cast in Tang and statues of four bodhisattvas cast in Qing. The north, south and east walls are painted with portraits of miniature Buddhas.

Cave No. 348

Period of Construction: High Tang.

Contents: Corridor: The ceiling shows floral designs as the central painting; the east and west slopes are covered by decorative hangings. The east and west walls feature lotus flowers which are blurred and black due to fumigation.

Main Hall: The centre and the four slopes of the caisson ceiling show floral designs. The north wall of the niche on the south wall shows two disciples which are black due to fumigation. The east and west walls feature a preaching scene each.

Cave No. 349

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated in Western Xia).

Contents: Corridor: The ceiling shows floral designs as the central painting; the east and the west slopes are covered by decorative hangings which are black and blurred. The east and west walls feature lotus flowers.

Main Hall: The four slopes of the ceiling are covered by floral designs. The north and west walls have light of Buddha and flowers; the south end of the west wall reveals a portrait of bodhisattva. The south wall also has floral designs.

Cave No. 350

Period of Construction: Western Xia.

Contents: The centre of the caisson ceiling in the main hall shows floral designs; the four slopes have circular lines and floral motifs. The niche on the west wall contains a statue of monk Zhao Gongming cast in Qing. The south and north walls have a preaching scene each. Above the entrance of the east wall is a preaching scene and on the north side is a damaged painting of a bodhisattva.

Cave Nos. [ 1 - 50   |  51 - 100  |  101 - 150  |  151 - 200  |  201 - 250 ]

[ 251 - 300   |  301 - 350  |  351 - 400  |  401 - 450  |  451 - 492 ]

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