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DUNHUANG ART


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Cave Nos. [ 1 - 50   |  51 - 100  |  101 - 150  |  151 - 200  |  201 - 250 ]

[ 251 - 300   |  301 - 350  |  351 - 400  |  401 - 450  |  451 - 492 ]


A Glimpse of the Mogao Caves

Cave No. 351

Period of Construction: The Five Dynasties (renovated in Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The surface layer of the ceiling depicts citron designs while the lower layer shows a damaged painting of the Five Dynasties. Above the entrance on the west wall are portraits of seven Buddhas. The south and north sides of the entrance illustrate the S£tras of Maµju¿r¢ and Samantabhadra respectively. The north and south walls illustrate the Amit¡bha S£tra individually.

Corridor: The ceiling has chess-board patterns and floral designs as the central painting. The north and south slopes are covered by decorative hangings. The top portion of the north and south walls shows preaching scenes; the middle portion features alms-offering bodhisattvas; at the lower level are drawn precious offerings inside a flask shaped entrance.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling shows a dragon playing with pearl. Circular lines, floral motifs, decorative hangings and chess-board floral designs cover the four slopes. The niche on the west wall displays a painting of Buddha drawn during Qing. The north and south walls feature miniature Buddhas, below these miniature portraits are precious offerings inside a flask shaped entrance; the west end of each wall has a portrait of alms-offering bodhisattva and flowers. Above the entrance of the east wall are miniature Buddhas; on the north and south sides of the entrance are miniature Buddhas; below these are precious offerings drawn inside flask shaped entrance.

Cave No. 352

Period of Construction: Western Xia.

Contents: The caisson ceiling in the main hall shows floral designs, circular lines and decorative hangings on the four slopes. The west wall niche contains statues of Bodhisattva Maitreya and attending bodhisattvas. The north wall features damaged portraits of six bodhisattvas and south wall features damaged portraits of two bodhisattvas.

Cave No. 353

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated in Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: The centre of the caisson ceiling in the main hall shows dharma-cakra, and the four slopes are covered by floral designs, circular lines, floral motifs and decorative hangings, the chess-board and floral designs, decorative hangings and a set of six flying figures. The west wall niche contains a statue of a bodhisattva cast in High Tang and six statues of BhaiÀajyaguru Buddha cast in Qing. The niche of the north wall contains a set of five Buddha statues cast in Qing. Above the entrance of the east wall is a portrait of a bodhisattva, the north and south sides of the entrance each have four bodhisattvas.

Cave No. 354

Period of Construction: Western Xia.

Contents: The centre of the caisson ceiling in the main hall has floral designs; the four slopes have decorative hangings and floral motifs. The centre of the ceiling of the niche on the west wall depicts two floral designs; and the four slopes are covered by decorative hangings. The north and south walls illustrate the Sukh¡vat¢-S£tra. On the south side of the entrance on the east wall is a portrait of the Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara while the north side has the Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara.

Cave No. 355

Period of Construction: Song (renovated in Western Xia).

Contents: The ceiling of the niche on the west wall contains a statue of a meditating Buddha cast in Western Wei. The north and south walls have depictions of the Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara and Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara respectively.

Cave No. 356

Period of Construction: Western Xia.

Contents: The centre of the caisson ceiling of the main hall shows lotus flowers; the south, east and west slopes are painted with miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall contains a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne. The north and the south walls feature miniature Buddhas with a preaching scene in the centre. Miniature Buddhas adorn the north side of the entrance on the east wall.

Cave No. 357

Period of Construction: Middle Tang.

Contents: There is statue of a meditating monk cast in Middle Tang.

Cave No. 358

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties, Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: On the lower layer above the entrance of the west wall is an invocation  inscribed during Middle Tang. The lower layer of the south side of the entrance has a portrait of Vir£dhaka drawn during Middle Tang, the lower layer of the north side entrance has a painting of Vai¿rava¸a.

Corridor: The ceiling shows floral patterns. The north and south walls feature two bodhisattvas.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows the three rabbits (joining as one) and round petalled lotus in the centre. The four slopes are covered by decorative hangings, floral motifs and flying figures. The niche on the west wall contains a statue of a bodhisattva and a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne cast in Qing. On the south wall from west-eastwards are the illustrations of Amit¡yus-S£tra and Maitreya-S£tra with donor figures drawn during Middle Tang, the Five Dynasties and Western Xia at the lower level. On the north wall west-eastwards are illustrations of BhaiÀajyaguru S£tra and Devat¡-S£tra and the lower portion is the same as the south wall. Above the entrance on the east wall is a preaching scene, to the south and north of the entrance are portraits of Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara and Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara respectively.

Cave No. 359

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (renovated in the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: Above the entrance on the west wall is a damaged painting drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Corridor: The ceiling shows a portrait of eight-armed Avalokite¿vara drawn in the Five Dynasties; the north and south walls display damaged paintings in a corner drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling shows a lion and lotus flower; the four slopes are covered by decorative hangings and floral motifs. On the upper portion of the west slope is a painting of Buddha attending sermon and below this are seen Garu·a and Kalavi´ka. The north, south and east slopes feature miniature Buddhas with preaching scene in the centre. The niche on the west wall contains statues of bodhisattvas cast in Qing and a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne. West-eastwards on the south wall are illustrations of the Amit¡bha-S£tra and Vajracchedik¡-S£tra; below these fifteen female donors. On the north wall from west to east are illustrated BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra and Maitreya-S£tra; below these are thirteen male donors in Tibetan costume. Above the entrance on the east wall is inscribed an invocation along with a male and female donor. The south and north sides illustrate Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra showing Vimalak¢rti and Maµju¿r¢ respectively; below these are male and female donors.

Cave No. 360

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The ceiling shows a damaged painting drawn in the Five Dynasties. Above the entrance on the west wall are decorative hangings and an invocation which is inscribed during the Five Dynasties. To the south and north of the entrance are N¡gar¡jas paying homage to Buddha also drawn in the Five Dynasties. The north wall features a damaged painting drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Corridor: The ceiling shows a preaching scene; the north and south walls also feature preaching scene; all these are drawn in the Five Dynasties. Below it are three male donors.

Main Hall: The ceiling shows kalavi´ka, round petalled lotus flower in the centre. The four slopes are painted with decorative hangings and floral motifs. The west slope features miniature Buddhas with á¡kyamuni preaching the dharma in the centre; the south, north and east slopes have miniature Buddhas with the stµupa of Prabh£taratna in the centre. The west wall niche contains statues of a bodhisattva and two disciples cast in Qing. West-eastwards on the south wall are illustrations of á¡kya mandala, Amit¡yus-S£tra and Maitreya-S£tra, below each of these is a screen having scenes on the panels. West to east on the north wall are portraits of the thousand-armed and thousand-bowled Maµju¿r¢, BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra and Devat¡-S£tra. Screens with paintings are shown below each of the illustrations. Above the entrance on the east wall is a painting of the contents from Maµju¿r¢-S£tra. On the south and north sides of the entrance are illustrations of Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra showing Vimalak¢rti and Maµju¿r¢ respectively.

Cave No. 361

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties).

Contents: Corridor: Remnants of painting on the ceiling.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling has crossbeams and lotus designs. Floral motifs, vajra cudgel and decorative hangings cover the four slopes. Preaching scenes, Buddhas of ten directions attending sermons cover the west slope. The north, south and east slopes show four flying figures each on the top portion, miniature Buddhas with a preaching scene in the centre in the middle portion. The ceiling of the niche on the west wall shows garlands and hanging curtains and chess-board and floral designs; the four slopes are covered by miniature Buddhas. On the south of the niche is the painting of incarnation of Samantabhadra on Mount Emei, while on its north is the same of Maµju¿r¢ on Mount Wutai. West-eastwards on the south wall are illustrations of the Amit¡bha-S£tra and Vajracchedik¡-S£tra. On the north wall from west to east are illustrations of the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra and Maitreya-S£tra. Above the entrance of the east wall is a portrait showing á¡kyamuni and Prabh£taratna. The south side of the entrance illustrates the S£tra of thousand-armed and thousand-bowled Maµju¿r¢. The middle portion has a portrait of Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara; below it is a painting of female donors drawn during the Five Dynasties. On the north side of the entrance is a portrait of the eleven-headed and thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokite¿vara.

Cave No. 362

Period of Construction: The Five Dynasties.

Contents: The murals of this cave are destroyed.

Cave No. 363

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (renovated in Western Xia).

Contents: Corridor: The ceiling shows four- petalled flowers as the central painting; the north and south slopes are covered by decorative hangings. The north and south walls feature a wandering monk.

Main Hall: The centre of the ceiling shows coiled dragons and the four slopes have floral designs and decorative hangings. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a sitting Buddha, two each of disciples, bodhisattvas and devar¡jas cast in Middle Tang and a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne. The south and north walls illustrate the Sukh¡vat¢-S£tra with donor figures shown below. Above the entrance of the east wall are portraits of seven Buddhas. The south and north sides of the entrance have a portrait each of BhaiÀajyaguru Buddha; at a lower level are male and female donors.

Cave No. 364

Period of Construction: Song Dynasty.

Contents: The ceiling has a design of cross- cudgels. On the north side of the entrance on the west wall are devar¡jas while the south side has a damaged painting. The north and south walls feature flying figures and attendants.

Cave No. 365

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (renovated in Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: Portraits of two devar¡jas are seen on both the north and south sides of the entrance on the west wall.

Corridor: Both the north and south walls display damaged alms-offering bodhisattvas.

Main Hall: The ceiling has floral designs and above the platform on the west wall is a set of seven statues of meditating Buddhas cast in Middle Tang. The upper portion of the wall shows a canopy of bodhi-ratna and Buddha light drawn during Middle Tang. The upper portion of the north and south walls illustrates the Sukh¡vat¢-S£tra. The upper portion of the east wall shows decorative hangings and seen above the entrance on the east wall is a preaching scene. The south and north sides of the entrance illustrate the Sukh¡vat¢-S£tra.

Cave No. 366

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (renovated in Song and Qing).

Contents: The caisson ceiling in the main hall shows a round phoenix; the north, south and east slopes are painted with floral designs. The niche on the west wall contains a statue of Jade Emperor. The top portion of the north and south walls features decorative hangings, the middle portion features bodhisattvas and the lower portion the precious offerings. Above the entrance on the east wall are decorative hangings, illustration of the Maµju¿r¢-S£tra on the south side and Samantabhadra-S£tra on the north side of the entrance.

Cave No. 367

Period of Construction: Western Xia (renovated in Qing).

Contents: The centre of the caisson ceiling in the main hall has a round phoenix, the four slopes are covered by circular lines, floral motifs and floral designs. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a Buddha and two disciples cast in Qing and a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne. The top portion of the north and south walls shows decorative hangings; the middle portion illustrates Sukh¡vat¢ S£tra and preaching scenes. The top portion of the east wall features decorative hangings in a row. Above the entrance and on the north and south sides of the entrance on the east wall are preaching scenes.

Cave No. 368

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (renovated in Song and Qing).

Contents: The centre of the caisson ceiling of the main hall shows coiled dragon, and the four slopes show circular lines, floral motifs, and chess-board and floral designs. The niche on the west wall contains a statue of a sitting Buddha cast in High Tang, statues of bodhisattvas and devar¡jas cast in Song, statues of Ënanda and K¡¿yapa cast in Qing and a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne. The top portion of the north, south and east walls features decorative hangings; the north and south walls illustrate the Sukh¡vat¢ S£tra in the middle portion, and four sermon attending bodhisattvas at the west end; precious offerings are painted below. Above the entrance of the east wall is a painting of á¡kyamuni and Prabh£taratna and preaching scenes are drawn on the north and south sides of the entrance.

Cave No. 369

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: Fragments of paintings of the Five Dynasties on the north and south walls.

Corridor: Same as ante-room.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows round petalled lotus, coiled dragon and four parrots. The four slopes are covered by miniature Buddhas with the preaching scene in the centre. The niche on the west wall contains a set of five Buddha statues cast in Qing. Samantabhadra and Mµju¿r¢ painted in the Five Dynasties figure on the south and north sides of the curtains at the opening of the niche. On the south wall from west to east are illustrations of the Vajracchedik¡-S£tra and Amit¡bha-S£tra; below these illustrations are a screen and seven bodhisattvas drawn during the Five Dynasties. West-eastwards on the north wall are illustrated the Maitreya-S£tra and BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra; below this is a screen and six bodhisattvas drawn during the Five Dynasties. Above the entrance of the east wall is a painting on the chapter of Buddhaloka from Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra. On the north and south sides of the entrance are illustrations of Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra, one wall featuring Vimalak¢rti and the other wall featuring Maµju¿r¢.

Cave No. 370

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (renovated in Song and Qing).

Contents: Corridor: A sitting Buddha in the centre of the ceiling with fragments of Buddha on the northern and southern slopes.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling shows crossed cudgels and lotus flowers. The four slopes are covered with floral motifs, decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas with a sitting Buddha in the centre. The west wall niche contains a statue of BhaiÀajyaguru Buddha cast in Qing. Samantabhadra and Maµju¿r¢ painted in the Five Dynasties figure on the south and north sides of the curtains at the opening of the niche. The south wall illustrates the Amit¡yus-S£tra flanked by Aj¡ta¿atru and the sixteen meditations. The north wall illustrates BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra with nine inauspicious deaths and twelve great vows on its east and west sides. Above the entrance of the east wall is a preaching scene drawn during Song, the south and north sides of the entrance have a portrait of an eleven-headed Avalokite¿vara drawn during Middle Tang.

Cave No. 371

Period of Construction: Early Tang (renovated in High Tang and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: A corner of the east and west slopes of the ceiling displays miniature Buddhas. Above the entrance of the west wall are portraits of seven Buddhas and seven attending bodhisattvas. To the north and south of the entrance is a preaching scene. The top layer of the south wall features a preaching scene, the lower layer features miniature Buddhas. The top and bottom layers of the north wall show preaching scenes. To the north and south of the entrance on the east wall are bodhisattvas.

Corridor: The north wall features a damaged painting.

Main Hall: The east and west slopes of the ceiling feature miniature Buddhas. Above the entrance on the west wall are the portraits of seven Buddhas, seven attending bodhisattvas. On the north and south sides is a preaching scene each, sitting Buddha cast in High Tang and statues two each of disciples and bodhisattvas cast in Qing. The top portion of the south wall shows a portrait of Avalokite¿vara preaching dharma; preaching scenes are shown below on the east side; in the middle is a halo and on the west side is a painting of a bodhisattva. The top portion of the north wall has the illustrations of the Saddharma-pu¸·ar¢ka S£tra; the rest is similar to the south wall excepting for a row of donors at the lower layer. Above the entrance of the east wall are miniature Buddhas; to the north and south of the entrance are paintings of bodhisattvas and attending bodhisattvas.

Cave No. 372

Period of Construction: Early Tang (renovated in Song and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The ceiling illustrates the Maitreya-S£tra drawn during Song.

Corridor: The ceiling shows a preaching scene drawn during Song; the north and south walls have damaged paintings of bodhisattvas.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows floral designs in the centre with decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas on the four slopes. The niche on the west wall contains a set of five statues cast in Qing. The south and north walls illustrate the Amit¡bha-S£tra and preaching scene respectively. On the south side of the entrance on the east wall are portraits of KÀitigarbha R¡ja and a sitting Buddha; the north side of the entrance has portraits of BhaiÀajyaguru Buddha and a female donor.

Cave No. 373

Period of Construction: Early Tang (renovated in Song and Qing).

Contents: The caisson ceilng shows pomegranate and lotus designs in the centre; the four slopes are covered by decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, K¡¿yapa cast in Tang and statues of a disciple and four bodhisattvas cast in Qing. The north and south walls feature miniature Buddhas with a preaching scene in the centre; bodhisattvas are seen below. Further below on the north wall are the portraits of female donors drawn during Early Tang. Above the entrance of the east wall are figures of seven Buddhas and two bodhisattvas. The south and north sides of the entrance have two devar¡jas each. Below the devar¡jas on the south side are alms-offering bodhisattvas drawn during Song.

Cave No. 374

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Corridor: The ceiling shows traces of a painting drawn during the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling shows a lotus flower while the four slopes show floral motifs, miniature Buddhas and decorative hangings. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a Buddha, two each of disciples and bodhisattvas cast in Qing. The south and north walls have a preaching scene each. A preaching scene drawn during the Five Dynasties is seen above the entrance of the east wall while on the south and north sides are the portraits of Vir£dhaka and Vai¿rava¸a respectively drawn during the Five Dynasties. Below the portrait of Vai¿rava¸a are female donors and two attendants.

Cave No. 375

Period of Construction: Early Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: A corner of the west slope of the ceiling reveals a painting drawn during the Five Dynasties. An invocation inscribed during the Five Dynasties is above the entrance on the west wall. On the north side is a scene showing N¡gar¡jas paying homage to Buddha. Both the north and south walls are partially covered by paintings drawn during the Five Dynasties.

Corridor: The centre of the ceiling shows a portrait of KÀitigarbha with ten kings of hell; the north and south slopes are covered by decorative hangings. The south wall of the corridor illustrates the Samantabhadra-S£tra drawn during Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling shows pomegranates and lotus flower designs. The four slopes are painted with the decorative hangings, ten flying musicians and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a Buddha, two disciples and four bodhisattvas cast in Early Tang. The north and south walls feature miniature Buddhas with the preaching scene in the centre; below miniature Buddhas on the south wall are eleven female donors and twelve attendants. The lower portion of the north wall features fourteen male donors and fourteen attendants. Miniature Buddhas cover the space above the entrance of the east wall, on the south and north sides of the entrance are two devar¡jas; below on the north side are the figures of three female donors, bhikÀun¢ and two attendants while the south side shows donors drawn during the Five Dynasties.

Cave No. 376

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during Qing).

Contents: The caisson ceiling in the main hall shows flower clusters in the centre. Circular lines, floral motifs and decorative hangings are seen on the four slopes. The niche on the west wall contains statues of seven Buddhas cast in Qing and a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne. Both the north and south walls illustrate the Sukh¡vat¢ S£tra, five precious offerings in the bottle-shaped door are below. The lower layer of east wall features miniature Buddhas drawn during Sui; on the south side of the entrance is a preaching Buddha and below it in the bottle shaped door are precious offerings. On the north side of the entrance is a preaching Buddha; below it are two precious offerings in the bottle-shaped door.

Cave No. 377

Period of Construction: Song Dynasty.

Contents: There are fragments of a portrait of six-armed Avalokite¿vara on the west wall, the north and south walls feature damaged paintings; that of the north wall is a bodhisattva. This cave is placed between Cave Nos. 378 and 376.

Cave No. 378

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during Qing).

Contents: The centre of the caisson ceiling in the main hall has floral designs; the four slopes are painted with circular lines, floral motifs and decorative hangings. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, two disciples cast in Sui and two bodhisattva statues cast in Qing and a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne. The north and south walls illustrate the Sukh¡vat¢-S£tra; seen below in the painted narrow doorway are eleven precious offerings. Above the entrance and on the north and south sides of the entrance on the east wall are illustrations of the Sukh¡vat¢-S£tra, below this precious offerings are painted in the bottle- shaped door.

Cave No. 379

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during High and Middle Tang, the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The west slope of the ceiling features portraits of Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara, the thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokite¿vara and Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara. Above the entrance of the west wall are bodhisattvas and an invocation inscribed during the Five Dynasties. Portrait of Vir£dhaka drawn during the Five Dynasties is on the south side of the entrance while at the lower level are female donors. To the north of the entrance is a portrait of Vai¿rava¸a drawn during the Five Dynasties. The south wall illustrates Maµju¿r¢-S£tra drawn during the Five Dynasties; below it are female donors. The north wall features a damaged painting in a corner drawn during the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling exhibits lotus flowers and Aupap¡dakas born out of lotus. The four slopes are painted with the decorative hangings, a set of twelve dancing and flying figures and miniature Buddhas drawn during Sui. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, two disciples cast in Sui and four bodhisattvas cast in Qing. The south wall illustrates Amit¡yus-S£tra drawn during High Tang flanked by Aj¡ta¿atru and the sixteen meditations on the west and east respectively. Below are portraits of eighteen donors drawn during Middle Tang. The north wall is covered by miniature Buddhas having a preaching scene in the centre drawn during Sui; at a lower level are the figures of eight bodhisattvas, further below are a donor bhik¦u, eleven male and seven female donors. Miniature Buddhas painted during Sui are shown above the entrance of the east wall, to the south of the entrance are portraits of KÀitigarbha and Avalokite¿vara Bodhisattva drawn during Middle Tang, floral designs and two male donors drawn during the Five Dynasties; on the north side of the entrance are two portraits of a bodhisattva drawn during High Tang and the Five Dynasties, two female donors drawn during High Tang and four male donors drawn during the Five Dynasties.

Cave No. 380

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during Song and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The south side of the entrance on the west wall illustrates the Samantabhadra-S£tra, the north side illustrates the Maµju¿r¢ S£tra both drawn during Song. The north and south walls feature paintings drawn during Song.

Corridor: The ceiling has the portrait of KÀitigarbha with the ten kings of hell in the centre; the north and south slopes are covered by decorative hangings. The south wall is decorated by a portrait of the thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokite¿vara drawn during Song; below these are donors. The north wall has a portrait of the thousand-armed Maµju¿r¢ with thousand bowls drawn in Song; below it are donors.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling shows four cross-legged bodhisattvas, musicians, clouds, lotuses and precious gems. The four slopes are painted with the decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of cross-legged sitting Buddha, two disciples and two bodhisattvas cast in Sui dynasty. The top portion of the south wall shows seven flying figures, celestial mansions, decorative hangings and three rows of miniature Buddhas; the middle portion has a preaching scene, the lower portion has three donor bhikÀun¢s and two female donors. The top portion of the north wall is painted with the figures of seven musicians and flying figures, celestial mansions, decorative hangings and three rows of miniature Buddhas, the middle portion has a fire spitting dragon and at a lower level are five donor bhikÀus and five male donors. The upper portion of the east wall shows six flying figures, celestial mansions, decorative hangings. Above the entrance of the east wall is a preaching scene. Above the north and south sides of the entrance are miniature Buddhas, a devar¡ja in the middle portion and female donors four and six respectively at the lower portion painted during Song.

Cave No. 381

Period of Construction: Early Tang (renovated during Qing).

Contents: The ceiling design in the main hall shows lotus flowers in the centre, the four slopes are covered by decorative hangings and eight flying figures. Miniature Buddhas and Aupap¡dakas are drawn on the north, west and south slopes, the east slope features only miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of cross-legged sitting Buddha, two each of disciples and bodhisattvas cast in Early Tang. The south wall features miniature Buddhas, a preaching scene in the middle portion and portraits of a bhikÀu and nine male donors below. The north wall has the same features as the south wall but at the lower level are seven female donors and one bhikÀun¢. Above the south side of the entrance on the east wall are portraits of a meditating bodhisattva, a cross-legged sitting bodhisattva and a disciple, the middle portion shows a portrait of devar¡ja and at the bottom are four female donors. Above the north side are portraits of a meditating bodhisattva, a cross-legged sitting bodhisattva and a disciple, the middle portion has a portrait of devar¡ja and at the bottom are four male donors.

Cave No. 382

Period of Construction: Western Xia.

Contents: The centre of the caisson ceiling in the main hall shows cross-beams. Floral designs decorate the four slopes. The west wall has a Buddha statue cast in Qing. The top portion of the wall is covered by decorative hangings; the middle portion shows a preaching scene. The top portions of the north and south walls are painted with decorative hangings and the middle portion a bodhisattva. Decorative hangings are seen above the entrance of the east wall, to the north is a bodhisattva.

Cave No. 383

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during Song, Western Xia and Qing Dynasties).

Contents: Corridor: The north and south walls of the ceiling feature paintings drawn during Western Xia.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling shows the three rabbits (joining as one) and lotus flower designs; the four slopes are covered by decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas drawn during Sui. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, two disciples and two bodhisattvas cast in Sui. The niche on the south wall contains statue of a cross-legged bodhisattva cast in Sui; statues of two bodhisattvas cast in High Tang. Miniature Buddhas cover the space above the entrance of the east wall, on the north and the south sides of the entrance are miniature Buddhas drawn during Sui; the south side has donor horse carts, a bodhisattva and an Aupap¡daka drawn during Song; at a lower level on the north side are four female donors and a bodhisattva.

Cave No. 384

Period of Construction: High and Middle Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The east and west slopes of the ceiling feature miniature Buddhas drawn during Middle Tang. Above the entrance on the west wall is preaching Buddha drawn during Middle Tang; the north and south sides of the entrance feature a bodhisattva and two male donors drawn during the Five Dynasties. The south side has a portrait of Vir£dhaka drawn during Middle Tang. The north and south walls feature miniature Buddhas drawn during Middle Tang; the east end of the north wall illustrates the Samantabhadra-S£tra.

Corridor: The ceiling shows KÀitigarbha and the ten kings of hell drawn during the Five Dynasties. The south wall illustrates Maitreya-S£tra; below it is a male donor drawn during the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling has floral designs in the centre. The four slopes are covered by decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas drawn during High Tang. The niche on the west wall contains statues of cross-legged sitting Buddha, two disciples, two bodhisattvas and two bodhisattvas cast in High Tang. The niches on the north and south walls shelter statues of Buddha and two bodhisattvas each, the statue of the Buddha in the niche on the south wall is leaning while that in the niche on the north wall is cross-legged. There is six-armed Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara on the south wall painted in Middle Tang by the side of the niche, and a six-armed Cintama¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara of the same vintage and position on the north wall. Above the entrance of east wall are the portraits of seven Buddhas drawn during Middle Tang; on the south side of the entrance are portraits of two bodhisattvas. On the north side is a portrait of VaiÀrava¸a of northern direction. There is tantric influence in this cave.

Cave No. 385

Period of Construction: The Five Dynasties.

Contents: The ceiling shows floral patterns. The west wall has a statue of bodhisattva in ardha-padm¡sana. The north and south walls have each a portrait of bodhisattva.

Cave No. 386

Period of Construction: Early Tang (renovated during Middle Tang, the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: Above the entrance on the west wall is a painting; to the south and north of the entrance is a devar¡ja and a painting respectively, all are drawn during the Five Dynasties. The south wall features devar¡ja with a soldier in hell painted in the Five Dynasties.

Corridor: The ceiling shows partially damaged painting drawn in Middle Tang. The north and south walls feature portraits of Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara and Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara also drawn during Middle Tang.

Main Hall: The centre of caisson ceiling shows lotus flower; the four slopes are covered by decorative hangings and eight flying figures and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of cross-legged sitting Buddha with two disciples and four bodhisattvas. On the upper portion of the south wall are miniature Buddhas; in the middle portion an illustration of Amit¡bha S£tra and Maitreya S£tra west-eastwards drawn in Middle Tang; nine bhikÀus and precious offerings at the bottom. On the upper portion of the north wall are miniature Buddhas from Early Tang and the Five Dynasties. The middle portion illustrates s£tras. West-eastwards are the Devat¡-S£tra and BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra both drawn during Middle Tang, below these are six donor bhikÀus, two ár¡ma¸eras, and various precious things. Above the entrance of the east wall is the thousand-armed and thousand-eyed AvalokiteÀvara, to the south of the entrance are miniature Buddhas drawn in Early Tang, the middle portion illustrates the Maµju¿r¢-S£tra drawn during Middle Tang, below it are a donor bhikÀu and a ár¡ma¸era, above the north side of the entrance are miniature Buddhas drawn in the Five Dynasties, the middle section illustrates the Samantabhadra-S£tra; below it are four donors and two bhikÀus; both these are drawn in Middle Tang.

Cave No. 387

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The west slope of the ceiling has three flying figures. Above the entrance on the west wall are portraits of seven Buddhas; to the north and south of the entrance are Vai¿rava¸a and Vir£dhaka. The south wall features KÀitigarbha. All the paintings are drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Corridor: The ceiling displays a preaching scene. The north and south walls have portraits of the Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara and Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara respectively.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows pomegranate and floral motifs in the centre; on the four slopes are the decorative hangings, flying figures and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, two disciples and two bodhisattvas in ardha-padm¡sana and two bodhisattvas cast in High Tang. The south wall shows a s£tra illustration; painted on the east and west sides are miniature Buddhas, below these figures are two female donors drawn during the Five Dynasties and six male donors drawn in High Tang. Above the entrance of the east wall is a preaching scene; below it are three donor bhikÀus, the south and north sides of the entrance are covered by miniature Buddhas; below them are female and male donors drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Cave No. 388

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during the Five Dynasties, Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The ceiling and the north walls have damaged paintings. Above the entrance of the west wall are drawings painted in the Five Dynasties; to the south of the entrance is a devar¡ja and to the north is Vai¿rava¸a of the northern direction. The south wall has an illustration of the Samantabhadra-S£tra which is partially damaged.

Corridor: The ceiling displays an eleven- headed Avalokite¿vara drawn in the Five Dynasties. The north and south walls feature portraits of the Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara and Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara respectively.

Main Hall: A lotus flower design is in the centre of the caisson ceiling in the main hall, the four slopes are covered by decorative hangings, flying figures and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall contains statues of one cross-legged sitting Buddha, two disciples and four bodhisattvas cast in Sui. The north and south walls are painted with miniature Buddhas; at the lower level are the yakÀas. Miniature Buddhas cover the space above the entrance, the south and north sides of the entrance of the east wall.

Cave No. 389

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated in the Five Dynasties, Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: Above the entrance on the west wall and to the north of the entrance are damaged paintings drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Corridor: The ceiling has a preaching scene drawn in the Five Dynasties. Both the north and south walls have portraits of bodhisattva.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling features lotus flowers; the four slopes have the decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a Buddha, two disciples and two bodhisattvas cast in Sui. Miniature Buddhas with a preaching scene in the middle cover the south wall; below them are female donors and yakÀas. Above the entrance and on the north and south sides of the entrance on the east wall are miniature Buddhas. On the south side at a lower level in a corner are the yak¦as and donor ox cart, on the north side a herd of horses and a yakÀa.

Cave No. 390

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: Above the entrance on the west wall is an invocation of the Five Dynasties, on both sides are scenes of Vai¿rava¸a attending sermon; above the south side of the entrance is a damaged mural of Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara; the middle portion illustrates the S£tra for Redemption from Indebtedness; below it are donors (faded). In the middle portion to the north of the entrance is illustrated the Amit¡bha-S£tra (faded); along the entrance are fragments of miniature Buddhas. The north and south walls feature Ënanda and bodhisattvas (both have only their heads remaining) and disciples and donors respectively, all drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Corridor: The ceiling shows KÀitigarbha and the ten kings of hell drawn in the Five Dynasties; the middle portion is inscribed with an account written by monk Daoming. The north and south walls illustrate the Maµju¿r¢-S£tra and the Samantabhadra-S£tra respectively; below the illustrations are blurred impressions of donors. All these are drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: Lotus flowers are painted in the centre of the caisson ceiling; the four slopes are covered by garlands and hanging curtains, decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall has statues of a sitting bodhisattva, two angels and four standing bodhisattvas cast in Sui. The top portion of the south wall shows ten dancing and flying figures, celestial mansions, fifteen sitting Buddhas; the middle portion exhibits a sitting bodhisattva, the two sides show eighteen cross-legged sitting Buddhas, below these figures are twenty-six female donors and thirty-one attendants and further below is a painting of nine female donors and eight attendants drawn in the Five Dynasties. The top portion of the north wall shows ten flying figures, celestial mansions, and fifteen sitting Buddhas, the middle portion has Avalokite¿vara preaching the dharma flanked by eighteen cross-legged sitting Buddhas; below them are forty-seven male donors, further below are the portraits of twenty-eight male donors drawn during the Five Dynasties. Above the entrance of the east wall are eight flying figures, celestial mansions and seventeen cross-legged sitting Buddhas painted in Sui. Along the upper portion of the entrance is a painting of seven Buddhas and to the north and south is a painting of eight cross-legged sitting Buddhas drawn in Sui.

Cave No. 391

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during the Five Dynasties).

Contents: The west slope of the ceiling has a canopy of bodhi-ratna drawn in the Five Dynasties. The rear portion has preaching scene and in the niche on the west wall is painted a halo along with a preaching scene. The north and south walls also have a preaching scene each drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Cave No. 392

Period of Construction: Sui and Early Tang (renovated during Middle Tang, the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: Above the entrance on the west wall is an invocation inscribed during the Five Dynasties, on both sides are scenes of Vai¿rava¸a attending sermon; on the north and south sides are damaged statues of Lokap¡las.

Corridor: The centre of the ceiling features the ten kings of hell drawn in the Five Dynasties. Both the north and south slopes feature five cross-legged sitting Buddhas. The north and south walls display damaged paintings drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows two dragons and lotus designs in the centre; the four slopes are painted with miniature Buddhas, the west slope shows four flying figures and decorative hangings. The niche on the west wall houses statues of one cross-legged sitting Buddha, two disciples and four bodhisattvas carved in Sui. Statues of standing Maitreya Bodhisattva and two bodhisattvas decorate the south wall, the north wall holds statues of a Buddha and two bodhisattvas. Above the entrance on the east wall is a preaching scene painted during Sui, the north and south sides of the entrance are covered by miniature Buddhas.

Cave No. 393

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated in Song and Qing).

Contents: The centre of the caisson ceiling in the main hall has lotus flower; the four slopes are covered by decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. Statues of a sitting Buddha and two bodhisattvas cast in Song are seen on the west wall. The wall also illustrates the Amit¡bha-S£tra; below it are two yakÀas. The south wall is covered by miniature Buddhas; below them are two bhikÀus and two female donors. The north wall has the same features as the south wall but has three male donors and one bhikÀu at the lower level. On the south, north sides and above the entrance of the east wall are miniature Buddhas.

Cave No. 394

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The west slope of the ceiling has s£tra illustrations in a corner drawn in the Five Dynasties. Above the entrance of the west wall are floating clouds, to the north and south of the entrance are disciples and two sitting Buddhas respectively. The south wall shows a damaged painting of disciples and bodhisattvas while the painting on the north wall is blurred. All these are drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The ceiling shows the lotus designs; the slopes are painted with miniature Buddhas and decorative hangings. The niche on the west wall contains statues of Buddha, two disciples and two bodhisattvas cast in Qing. West to east on the south wall are a preaching scene with a cross-legged sitting Buddha, a preaching scene with sitting bodhisattvas; at a lower level are seven male donors, a bhikÀu and a bhikÀun¢. Preaching scenes are seen on the north wall; below this are other figures like male and female donors, a bhikÀun¢ and a bhikÀu. The BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra is illustrated above the entrance on the east wall; on the north and south sides of the entrance are portraits of two devar¡jas.

Cave No. 395

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during the Five Dynasties, Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: Corridor: The south wall has the image of a monk, landscape and a deer. The north wall depicts Vai¿rava¸a drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The east slope of the ceiling has precious offerings, floating clouds; on the west slope are shown two flying figures. The niche on the west wall contains a statue of standing Buddha cast in Qing, the north and south walls have an illustration each of the S£tra for Avalokite¿vara, on both sides is the description of the Chapter on Universal Gate of Avalokite¿vara. Above the entrance on the east wall is a damaged painting of miniature Buddhas drawn in Sui.

Cave No. 396

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: Above the entrance of the west wall is an illustration of the Saddharma-pu¸·ar¢ka-S£tra, the north side of the entrance shows the Chapter on the Universal Gate of Avalokite¿vara and people being rescued from sufferings painted during the Five Dynasties. A corner of the north wall illustrates the Avalokite¿vara S£tra.

Corridor: The north wall features the Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows a lotus design in the centre; the four slopes are covered with decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of one cross-legged sitting Buddha, two disciples and four bodhisattvas carved in Sui. The north and south walls are painted with miniature Buddhas on the top portion; a preaching scene in the centre; below are seven female donors on the south side with yakÀas further below; on the north side are five male donors at the lower level and yak¦as further below. Above the entrance on the east wall and on the north side are miniature Buddhas.

Cave No. 397

Period of Construction: Sui and Early Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: A damaged painting of a meditating Buddha belonging to the Five Dynasties is on the west slope. Above the entrance of the west wall is an invocation inscribed during the Five Dynasties and the murals on this wall are uniformly blurred. Illustrated on the north and south walls are preaching scenes and s£tras.

Corridor: History of Buddhism of Khotan and other areas is depicted as the central painting on the ceiling. The north and south slopes are painted with auspicious symbols. The north and south walls feature male donors. All these are paintings of the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows the three rabbits (joining as one) and lotus in the centre; the four slopes are covered with decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a Buddha, two disciples and four bodhisattvas cast in Sui. The upper portion of the north and south walls are painted with miniature Buddhas; below are the bodhisattvas, donors and bhikÀus. Above the entrance of the east wall is a painting of miniature Buddhas drawn in Sui, on the north and south sides are miniature Buddhas drawn in Early Tang; below them are three bodhisattvas.

Cave No. 398

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: The caisson ceiling in the main hall shows lotus and flaming pearl in the centre, the four slopes are covered by decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, two disciples and four bodhisattvas cast in Sui. The north and south walls have the same features: the top portion showing flying figures and celestial mansions, the middle portion having a preaching scene; the lower portion having donors and a bhikÀu. Above the entrance on the east wall are the portraits of a Buddha and two bodhisattvas drawn in the Five Dynasties. On the south side of the entrance at the top are two flying figures and celestial mansions drawn in Sui, below are donors and a devar¡ja. To the north of the entrance is a portrait of a bodhisattva with a halo, drawn in Sui.

Cave No. 399

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: Corridor: The centre of the ceiling shows floral designs drawn in Western Xia. The north and south slopes are covered by decorative hangings. Alms-offering bodhisattvas adorn the north and south walls.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling in the main hall shows the floral designs, the four slopes show the circular lines, floral motifs, decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall shelters a statue of cross-legged sitting Buddha cast in Sui. The north and south walls illustrate the Sukh¡vat¢-S£tra. Cloud lines and precious offerings are drawn above the entrance of the east wall. On the north and south sides are portraits of bodhisattvas.

Cave No. 400

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: On the south side of the entrance of the west wall are damaged paintings of Western Xia.

Corridor: The centre of the ceiling is decorated with flower clusters. The north and south slopes show damaged hanging curtain designs.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling exhibits two dragons, the four slopes are covered by circular lines and floral designs. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a Buddha, two disciples and two bodhisattvas along with a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne, all cast in Sui. The upper portion of the south wall is covered by decorative hangings, the middle portion illustrates the Amit¡bha S£tra, and the lower portion shows the alms-offering devas inside the painted bottle- shaped door. The upper portion of the north wall is covered with decorative hangings; middle portion illustrates the BhaiÀajyaguru S£tra; the lower portion has the same features as the south wall. The top portion of the east wall is covered with the decorative hangings, the Sukh¡vat¢-S£tra is illustrated on the north, south and above the entrance on the east wall. Inside the painted bottle-shaped door at a lower level are the alms-offering devas.

Cave Nos. [ 1 - 50   |  51 - 100  |  101 - 150  |  151 - 200  |  201 - 250 ]

[ 251 - 300   |  301 - 350  |  351 - 400  |  401 - 450  |  451 - 492 ]

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