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DUNHUANG ART


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Cave Nos. [ 1 - 50   |  51 - 100  |  101 - 150  |  151 - 200  |  201 - 250 ]

[ 251 - 300   |  301 - 350  |  351 - 400  |  401 - 450  |  451 - 492 ]


A Glimpse of the Mogao Caves

 

Cave No. 401

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during the Five Dynasties, Early Tang and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The Avalokite¿vara-S£tra is illustrated in a corner of the west slope of the ceiling. Above the entrance of the west wall is the scene of Vai¿rava¸a attending sermon painted during the Five Dynasties and to the north of the entrance are four N¡gar¡jas paying homage to Buddha.

Corridor: The ceiling depicts Buddhist history of Khotan in the centre; the north and south slopes describe five auspicious symbols both from the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The centre of caisson ceiling shows lotus flower and flying figures; the four slopes are covered by decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha and six bodhisattvas cast in Sui and repaired in Qing. The inner chamber of the niche has six bodhisattvas painted in Sui flanking halos. The outer chamber of it is painted with an Indra also identified as Dongwanggong, and his celestial spouse also identified as Xiwangmu with two "Man-but-not-man" (ren-fe¢ren) figures and eleven flying figures. The niche on the south wall contains statues of a cross-legged sitting bodhisattva and two attendant bodhisattvas cast in Sui. The niche on the north wall houses statues of Samantabhadra and two bodhisattvas. Above the entrance on the east wall is a painting of seven Buddhas drawn in Sui, a preaching scene painted during Early Tang; to the north and south of the entrance are portraits of Avalokite¿vara, BhaiÀajyaguru and Vir£dhaka respectively painted during the Five Dynasties.

Cave No. 402

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: Above the entrance of the west wall is a portrait of the thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokite¿vara painted during the Five Dynasties; on the north and south of the entrance is a faded n¡gar¡ja, and fragments in relief of the armour of the warriors carved in Sui. The south and north walls illustrate the Maµju¿r¢-S£tra and Samantabhadra-S£tra respectively.

Corridor: The centre of the ceiling is decorated by the portrait of an eleven-headed Avalokite¿vara; the north and south slopes have four cross-legged sitting Buddhas each. The north and south walls have portraits of the Cint¡ma¸i-Cakra Avalokite¿vara and Amoghap¡¿a Avalokite¿vara respectively painted during the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The entire ceiling is covered by miniature Buddhas of Sui vintage. The niche on the west wall houses a statue of a Buddha cast in Sui and repaired in Qing and two disciples and four bodhisattvas cast in Qing. The top portion of the south wall shows a glimpse of paradise and twelve flying figures drawn in Sui. The middle portion has miniature Buddhas with a preaching scene in the centre. The lower portion shows a painting of five female donors painted during the Five Dynasties. The north wall has identical features as on the south. On the east wall on top there is a glimpse of the paradise with flying figures painted during Sui; on top and north and south of the entrance are miniature Buddhas drawn in Sui. There are also bodhisattvas and donors painted in the Five Dynasties.

Cave No. 403

Period of Construction: Sui (statues being renovated during Qing).

Contents: The ceiling shows lotus flowers in the centre; the four slopes are painted with decorative hangings, miniature Buddhas and Aupap¡dakas. The niche on the west wall shelters a statue of a cross-legged sitting Buddha cast in Sui and repaired in Qing along with two statues of disciples cast in Qing. The north and south walls are painted with miniature Buddhas; below them are three males and three females respectively. Above the entrance on the east wall are miniature Buddhas; to the south of the entrance are once again miniature Buddhas; below them are three female donors. On the north side of the entrance too are miniature Buddhas; below them are a male donor, horse-groom and two horses.

Cave No. 404

Period of Construction: Sui (statues repaired in Qing).

Contents: Corridor: On the north and south walls there are fragments of warriors.

Main Hall: The entire ceiling is covered by miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, two bodhisattvas cast in Sui and statues of two disciples and one bodhisattva cast in Qing. The top portion of the south wall features a glimpse of the paradise; miniature Buddhas with a preaching bodhisattva as the central painting in the middle portion; donors at the lower portion and yakÀas further below. The north wall has a glimpse of the paradise and eleven flying musicians at the top; miniature Buddhas having cross-legged sitting Buddha in the centre at the middle; five male donors, two attendants, six damaged female donors, nine attendants and a bhikÀu at the lower level; further below are yakÀas. The top portion of the east wall is painted with a scene of paradise, ten flying musicians and an Aupap¡daka. Above the entrance are miniature Buddhas; to the north and south of the entrance are miniature Buddhas; below them are donors, horses and canopies.

Cave No. 405

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated in Song and Qing).

Contents: The caisson ceiling exhibits lotus flowers in the centre; the four slopes are covered by decorative hangings in the corners and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall houses statues of a sitting Buddha and a bodhisattva cast in Sui and repaired in Qing, and statues of a bodhisattva and two disciples cast in Qing. The south wall shows miniature Buddhas with Avalokite¿vara preaching in the centre; the north wall features miniature Buddhas with a preaching Buddha in the centre. Above the entrance, to the south and north of it are miniature Buddhas, and at the lower level are donors drawn in Song.

Cave No. 406

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated in Song and Qing).

Contents: The centre of the caisson ceiling shows four designs of a set of three rabbits (joining as one) and lotus; the four slopes have decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a sitting Buddha and of two disciples cast in Sui and Qing. The north and south walls feature miniature Buddhas drawn during the Sui. At a lower level on the south wall are four donor bhikÀus and male donors. The north wall has a musician at the lower level. These are paintings of Song. Miniature Buddhas are painted above the entrance on the east wall and on the north and south sides of the entrance. Below them are Song paintings of ox carts and male donors.

Cave No. 407

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated in Song and Qing).

Contents: Corridor: The ceiling shows a bodhisattva in the centre; both the north and south slopes have three cross-legged sitting Buddhas. The north and south walls feature a damaged painting of Song.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling is covered with the three rabbits, lotus designs and flying figures drawn in Sui. The four slopes have decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a Buddha, a disciple and four bodhisattvas cast in Sui and a statue of a bodhisattva cast in Qing. The north, south and east walls have miniature Buddhas. Below these on the south are thirteen female, eight male and four female donors drawn in Song. The lower level of the north wall features twenty male donors and four attendants, and nine female donors also drawn in Song. Above the entrance of the east wall is a preaching scene and a sitting Buddha drawn during Song; the north and south sides of the entrance are covered by miniature Buddhas. On the south side are a bodhisattva and ten female donors at a lower level; while the north side shows male donors below a bodhisattva. All these paintings are of Song.

Cave No. 408

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated in Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: The north and west slopes of the ceiling show chess-board and floral designs. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a sitting Buddha and two disciples carved in Sui and Qing Dynasties. The top portion of north and south walls is painted with decorative hangings, the middle portion depicts bodhisattvas attending sermon, each depiction having a small circular niche in the centre. The lower portion is painted with narrow doorways inside which are drawn precious offerings. The top portion of the east wall is covered by decorative hangings. Above the entrance of the east wall is an illustration of the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra; to the south of the entrance is illustrated the Samantabhadra-S£tra and to the north is the Maµju¿r¢-S£tra. Below both the s£tra illustrations are painted narrow doorways inside which are drawn precious offerings.

Cave No. 409

Period of Construction: Western Xia (the stucco statues being redecorated during Qing).

Contents: Corridor: The ceiling shows floral patterns in the centre; the north and south slopes are covered by flowered canopies. Both the north and south walls have a BhaiÀajyaguru Buddha and a bodhisattva.

Main Hall: The east and west slopes of the front portion of the ceiling have floral designs. The rear portion has damaged floral designs. The niche on the west wall houses statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, one bodhisattva, two devar¡jas carved during Western Xia and statues of two disciples and a bodhisattva during Qing. The north and south walls are covered by decorative hangings on the upper portion; miniature Buddhas in the middle portion. Below them is a painting of a bottle-shaped door with ratnas inside it. The east wall has the decorative hangings on the upper portion, on the north and south sides and above the entrance are miniature Buddhas, portraits of the Western Xia King, prince and seven attendants are drawn on the south side of the entrance while those of the two queens and an angel are drawn on the north side. Below them precious offerings in a narrow doorway.

Cave No. 410

Period of Construction: Sui Dynasty.

Contents: The lotus occupies the centre of the caisson ceiling in the main hall; the north, south and west slopes are covered by decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas, and the east slope is damaged. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a sitting Buddha, two bodhisattvas carved in Sui and of a disciple cast in Qing. Both the south and east walls are painted with miniature Buddhas with a damaged niche in the centre.

Cave No. 411

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated in Western Xia and Qing).

Contents: The west slope of the ceiling shows damaged miniature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, four disciples and two bodhisattvas cast in Sui and Qing. The north and south walls feature damaged paintings of miniature Buddhas.

Cave No. 412

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Qing).

Contents: The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha and eight disciples cast in Sui. On the two sides of the outer layer are statues of two disciples and two bodhisattvas cast during Qing and Sui Dynasties. The east side of both the north and south walls exhibits a bodhisattva statue and both the walls are covered by miniature Buddhas. Below them are damaged paintings of donors drawn in Sui.

Cave No. 413

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during Yuan and Qing Dynasties).

Contents: The niche on the west wall houses a Buddha throne and hanging Chinese gown cast in Sui, one cross-legged sitting Buddha, four disciples and two bodhisattvas cast in Qing. Miniature Buddhas are featured on both the north and south walls.

Cave No. 414

Period of Construction: Sui (the statues being renovated in Qing).

Contents: The corners of the west and south slopes of the ceiling have minature Buddhas. The niche on the west wall houses statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha cast in Sui and four disciples and one bodhisattva carved during Qing. The south wall has a damaged painting of miniature Buddhas.

Cave No. 415

Period of Construction: Western Xia (the statues redecorated during Qing).

Contents: The south slope shows floral patterns and decorative hangings in a corner; the lower layer reveals a painting of a caisson ceiling drawn in Sui. The niche on the west wall houses statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, two devar¡jas cast in Western Xia, a disciple, a bodhisattva and a horse-hoof shaped Buddha throne cast in Qing. The north and south walls illustrate the Sukh¡vat¢ S£tra with bodhisattvas in the centre, two on the north wall and thirteen on the south wall.

Cave No. 416

Period of Construction: Sui Dynasty.

Contents: S£tra depicting the reincarnation of Maitreya in the Tushita Heaven is painted in the front portion of the west slope. The niche on the west wall contains statues of a sitting Buddha, two disciples and two bodhisattvas cast in Sui. The south wall shows traces of celestial mansions and flying figures and miniature Buddhas in a corner. The north features a damaged painting in a corner.

Cave No. 417

Period of Construction: Sui Dynasty.

Contents: The niche on the west wall contains statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, two disciples and two bodhisattvas of Sui. Outside the niche, on either side are statues of a bodhisattva in ardha-padm¡sana. The top portion of the north and south walls shows celestial mansions and flying figures and the middle portion is covered by miniature Buddhas.

Cave No. 418

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during Western Xia).

Contents: Ante-room: The painting above the entrance on the west wall is blurred. To the south and north of the entrance are portraits of Samantabhadra and Maµju¿r¢. All these are paintings of Western Xia.

Corridor: The ceiling has floral designs in the centre. The south slope shows a blurred painting belonging to Western Xia.

Main Hall: The niche on the west wall houses statues of a cross-legged sitting and preaching Buddha, two disciples and two bodhisattvas. The front portion of the south wall reveals miniature Buddhas drawn in Sui, illustration of BhaiÀajyaguru S£tra; two male and four female donors at the bottom. Seen in the rear portion is a portrait of BhaiÀajyaguru Buddha with five male donors below it. The north wall shows a preaching scene below the front slope; an illustration of the Amit¡bha-S£tra; below this are three male and four female donors. The rear portion features a BhaiÀajyaguru Buddha below which are five male donors. Above the entrance of the east wall are five cross-legged sitting Buddhas, to the north and south of the entrance are two bodhisattvas with male and female donors below them. All the paintings are drawn in Western Xia.

Cave No. 419

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during Western Xia).

Contents: Ante-room: Above the entrance of the west wall are drawn precious offerings, two flying figures, seven Buddhas drawn in Western Xia and to the north of the entrance is Maµju¿r¢.

Main Hall: On the front top portion of the west slope of the ceiling are illustrations of chapters of the Saddharma-pu¸·ar¢ka-S£tra in two rows and below these is the J¡taka of Prince Sattva in one row. Illustration of Prince Sud¡na in three rows is shown on the upper portion of the east slope with the J¡taka tale of Prince Sattva below in one row. The niche on the west wall shelters the statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, two disciples and two bodhisattvas. Seen on the upper portion of the north, south and east walls are the celestial mansions and flying figures; miniature Buddhas having a preaching scene as the central painting in the middle portion and yakÀas and donors at the lower portion of the north and south walls. The top portion of the east wall features celestial palace railings and walls and twelve flying figures; above the entrance and to the north and south of it are miniature Buddhas with the donors and yakÀas below.

Cave No. 420

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during Song and Western Xia).

Contents: Ante-room: The western slope of the ceiling has the remnants of Western Xia art designs, while the inner layer of the wall exposes Sui paintings.

Corridor: It features art designs on the ceiling and bodhisattvas on the northern and southern walls painted in Western Xia.

Main Hall: The caisson ceiling shows lotus flowers; the four slopes are covered by decorative hangings, an illustration of the Saddharma-pu¸·ar¢ka S£tra, flying figures and celestial mansions. The niche of the west wall shelters statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, two disciples and four bodhisattvas. Each of the niches on the north and south walls houses statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha and two bodhisattvas. The upper and middle portions on the east wall depict the preaching scene, a Song inscription of invocations is seen above the entrance of the east wall, and the south and north of the entrance have each a painting of miniature Buddhas.

Cave No. 421

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during Song and Qing).

Contents: A corner of the caisson ceiling and the west and south slopes are covered by decorative hangings and miniature Buddhas while the north slope is covered by miniature Buddhas. The paintings on all the three slopes are damaged. The niche on the west wall houses statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha and two disciples, cast in Sui and Qing. Miniature Buddhas are seen on the north and south walls.

Cave No. 422

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during Western Xia).

Contents: The niche on the west wall houses statues of a sitting Buddha, two disciples and two bodhisattvas. The north and south walls have miniature Buddhas, and donors.

Cave No. 423

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during Western Xia).

Contents: In the front portion of the east slope of the ceiling there is an illustration of J¡taka of Prince Sud¡na. The west slope shows a s£tra-illustration depicting the reincarnation of Maitreya in Tushita Heaven. The rear portion of the ceiling has the illustration of the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-S£tra with depictions on either side of Indra, Brahma and preaching scene. The niche on the west wall houses statues of sitting Buddha, two disciples and two bodhisattvas. On the upper portion of the north and south walls are paintings of celestial mansions, thirteen flying musicians. Miniature Buddhas are in the middle portion; below them are donors and bhikÀus. The upper portion of the east wall shows celestial mansions, flowers, and flying figures. To the south and above the entrance are miniature Buddhas. On the south side below the miniature Buddhas are five donors.

Cave No. 424

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated in Song).

Contents: Ante-room: The west slope of the ceiling shows an illustration of Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-Sµ£tra drawn in Sui. The top portion of the west wall shows a preaching scene drawn in Song.

Corridor: The centre of the ceiling has a preaching scene; the north and south slopes feature two cross-legged sitting Buddhas; these paintings are drawn in Song.

Main Hall: The ceiling is full of miniature Buddhas. The niche of the west wall shelters statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, two disciples and four bodhisattvas. The upper portion of the north and south walls shows celestial palace railings and walls, eleven flying musicians, the middle portion taken by miniature Buddhas and preaching scenes while the male and female donors from the Song occupy the lower portion. The east wall shows the same painting on the upper portion as the other two walls. Above the entrance, to the north and south are miniature Buddhas.

Cave No. 425

Period of Construction: Sui Dynasty.

Contents: Only the heads of disciples remain on the west wall.

Cave No. 426

Period of Construction: Sui Dynasty.

Contents: The centre of the caisson ceiling has the lotus designs with the decorative hangings on the four slopes. The west slope shows two flying figures, and the south slope, three cross-legged sitting Buddhas in meditation. The niche on the west wall houses a painting of lotus and halo flame. The north and south walls have depictions of preaching scenes.

Cave No. 427

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated in Song).

Contents: Ante-room: The wooden structure repaired in Song features birds and celestial musicians in the columns on the outer side, and flying figures, miniature Buddhas, Buddha preaching scenes, bodhisattvas and celestial musicians in the inner side. The western slope of the ceiling is painted with the scene of Nirv¡¸a of Sui vintage retouched by Song painters. On the west wall there is a Song invocation in the centre atop the entrance with Sui carved warrior redecorated in Song on both the north and south of the entrance. On both the north and south walls there are two Sui devar¡ja statues redecorated in Song.

Corridor: On both the northern and southern slopes of the ceiling there are five sitting Buddhas painted in Song. On the south wall is the Song painting of General Cao Yuanzhong with attendants, while his wife features on the north wall.

Main Hall: The east-facing niche on the central column houses Sui statues of Buddha, and a set of two bodhisattvas, a painting of miniature Buddhas with six bodhisattvas below on the wall. The north, south and west-facing niches on the column each house statues of a meditating Buddha and two disciples. The north, south and west walls show Sui paintings of celestial mansions, and donors with flying figures on the upper portion. The middle portion of the west wall has miniature Buddha representation with the central painting of a preaching scene. A Song painting of male donors is seen in the lower portion. On the slope of the upper portion of the north and south walls there are Sui statues of a Buddha, bodhisattvas, painting of miniature Buddhas with the bodhisattvas below. The rear portion of the walls has miniature Buddha painting with donors below the Buddha figures. Above, to the north and south of the east wall entrance are miniature Buddha figures with Sui painting of donors and donor bhikÀus below them.

Cave No. 428

Period of Construction: Northern Zhou (renovated during the Five Dynasties).

Contents: Ante-room: The middle of the west slope of the ceiling shows an illustration of the BhaiÀajyaguru S£tra, while the north and south sides show preaching scene.

Corridor: A part of painting of mantra of the Five Dynasties remains on the centre and the northern and southern slopes of the ceiling. The south wall is painted with Cao Yijin and his son while on the north wall his Uighur wife and attendants.

Main Hall: The central column has an east-facing niche housing statues of a cross-legged preaching Buddha and two disciples. The north, south and west-facing niches on the column shelter similar statues. The west wall's top portion has miniature Buddha images, the middle portion starting from south depicts preaching scenes, precious throne and the vajra pagoda, Nirv¡¸a S£tra, á¡kya and Prabh£taratna Buddha. and at the bottom are two hundred thirty-six donors in three rows and further below are the decorative hangings. The front portion of the slope on the south wall depicts a preaching scene, and the extending wall has miniature Buddha images. Starting from the east, the middle portion shows preaching Buddha in the cross-legged posture, Rocana or illuminating Buddha, a preaching Buddha in the cross-legged sitting pose, a meditating Buddha while walking, and a preaching Buddha in a cross-legged sitting pose. Male donors and bhikÀu donors are shown below and further below are the decorative hangings. The north wall shows the preaching scene at the lower portion. The extended wall shows the images of miniature Buddhas on the top, in the middle portion starting from the east are the preaching scenes, M¡ra Vijaya S£tra, a preaching scene, and two illustrations of walking and meditating Buddha. The lower portion carries the figures of donors and donor bhikÀus. The upper portion of the east wall carries miniature Buddha images, to the south of the entrance is an illustration of the story of Prince Sattva, and below are three rows of donors. To the north of the entrance is the story of Prince Sudh¡na with the donors shown in three rows.

Cave No. 429

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated in Song).

Contents: Ante-room: With fragments of Song paintings of bhikÀus on the west wall.

Main Hall: The north and south walls have illustrations of miniature Buddhas with a row each of male and female donors. On the east wall to the north and south of the entrance are illustrations of miniature Buddhas.

Cave No. 430

Period of Construction: Northern Zhou (renovated in Song).

Contents: Ante-room: A painting of Amit¡bha Buddha is seen on the west wall above the entrance. To the south of the entrance are bodhisattvas and in the lower layer to the north of the entrance is a Northern Zhou painting of devar¡ja.

Corridor: With remnants of floral designs painted in Northern Zhou.

Main Hall: On the east and west slopes of the front portion of the ceiling in the main hall are the lonicera designs, ma¸i and lotus flowers. The niche on the west wall shelters the statues of a sitting Buddha and two disciples. The upper portion shows celestial mansions along with dancing and flying figures. Miniature Buddha figures occupy the middle portion and at the bottom is a Song painting of donor bhikÀus and male donors. The north wall shows an addition of a Buddha throne in the Song dynasty, and an image of a standing Buddha. At present there is only one Buddha image. The top portion of the north wall depicts dancing and flying figures from the celetial palace, with miniature Buddhas in the middle and the paintings of donors drawn in Northern Zhou and Song at the bottom. The top portion of the east wall shows celestial palace and eight dancing and flying figures. Above the entrance of the east wall is a painting of Maitreya Bodhisattva; the south and north sides of the entrance each showing a painting of miniature Buddhas with a painting of donors at the bottom drawn in Song.

Cave No. 431

Period of Construction: Northern Wei (renovated during Early Tang and Song).

Contents: Ante-room: There are wooden structures and eaves repaired in Song. There are four columns on the wooden structure and each column is octagonal. On the eaves there are kalavi´kas, flying figures, bodhisattvas, celestial musicians with a preaching scene. On the ceiling are miniature Buddhas, Buddhas, flying figures and celestials attending sermon drawn in Song. Above the entrance on the west wall is inscribed an invocation. On both sides of this invocation is a portrait of "water-and-moon" Avalokite¿vara. To the south of the entrance on the top portion are the Buddhas of the ten directions drawn in Song. The middle portion has a scene of Vai¿rava¸a attending Nata's sermon; below this are the male donors. On the north side of the entrance the top portion has Buddhas of the ten directions; the middle portion features Vai¿rava¸a attending Nata's sermon; below this are female donors. The paintings to the north and south of the entrance are drawn in Song. The south wall has an illustration of the Saddharma-pu¸·ar¢ka-S£tra; below it are three male donors. The north wall has an illustration of the Avatamsaka-S£tra; below it are female donors. All these paintings belong to Song.

Corridor: The ceiling has portrait of Peacock King in the centre drawn in Song. Both the north and south walls have five miniature Buddhas.

Main Hall: The east-facing niche of the central column shelters a statue of a preaching Buddha in cross-legged sitting posture. The north, south and west-facing niches on the column each shelter a meditating Buddha statue, with bodhisattvas on the two sides outside the niche. The upper portion of the west wall shows five celestial musicians; the middle portion is covered by miniature Buddhas with a white-robed Buddha as the central figure. Both these are drawn in Northern Wei. Below them are depictions from Early Tang of the sixteen meditations. The inner layer of the wall reveals yakÀas drawn in Northern Wei, below them are donor ox-cart, horses, seventeen male and one female donors drawn in Early Tang; there are seven attendants. The upper portion on the south wall shows seventeen celestial musicians. The middle portion features miniature Buddhas with a meditating Buddha in the centre, on both sides are thirty-two alms-offering bodhisattvas drawn in Northern Wei; below them are ten scenes on the nine-fold future life in Sukh¡vat¢. Below these are portraits of a bhikÀu, twenty-two female donors and four attendants drawn in Early Tang. The upper portion of the north wall features twelve celestial musicians; the middle portion is covered by miniature Buddhas with a meditating Buddha in the centre; below them is the story of Aj¡ta¿atru painted in Early Tang. Miniature Buddhas Northern Wei painting on the top portion of the east wall. The niche above the entrance houses a statue of cross-legged bodhisattva cast in Northern Wei and a painting of bodhisattvas drawn in Song. To the south and north of the entrance are two paintings of devar¡jas drawn in Early Tang.

Cave No. 432

Period of Construction: Western Wei (renovated during Western Xia).

Contents: Ante-room: The west wall has Western Xia paintings of two scenes of Buddha attending the sermon on both north and south of the entrance and a part of the damaged Western Xia painting of the five Buddhas of all directions. The inner layer reveals fragments of paintings of Northern Wei and the Five Dynasties. On the south wall there are eight categories of Supernatural Beings on the inner layer covered by art designs of Western Xia on the surface layer.

Corridor: Art designs on the ceiling and bodhisattvas on the north and south walls all painted in Western Xia.

Main Hall: The east-facing niche on the central column houses a statue of a sitting Buddha and on either side, outside the niche, is a bodhisattva statue. The south, west and north-facing niches of the column each shelter a statue of a meditating Buddha. The upper portions of the four walls have a Western Xia painting of decorative hangings. The middle portion of the west wall has a painting of miniature Buddhas and in the lower portion of the flask-shaped entrance of all the four walls are the precious offerings.

Cave No. 433

Period of Construction: Sui Dynasty.

Contents: An illustration of the BhaiÀajyaguru S£tra is in the front portion of the east slope of the cave's ceiling. The west slope depicts a preaching scene. The rear portion of the ceiling has an illustration of the Maitreya S£tra flanked by the Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a S£tra with Maµju¿r¢ and Vimalak¢rti to the south and north respectively. The niche on the west wall houses Sui statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha and two bodhisattvas. The rest of the upper portion of the four walls has celestial mansions and decorative hangings with the lower portion showing male and female donors and horses. To the north and south of the entrance on the east wall there are depictions of miniature Buddhas.

Cave No. 434

Period of Construction: Sui Dynasty.

Contents: The niche on the west wall shelters a statue of a cross-legged sitting Buddha with a bodhisattva on either side. The north, south and east walls depict miniature Buddhas.

Cave No. 435

Period of Construction: Northern Wei (renovated during the Five Dynasties).

Contents: Corridor: Fragments of paintings of Five Dynasties are on the ceiling and north wall.

Main Hall: The east-facing niche on the central column houses a sitting-preaching Buddha. The north and south-facing niches on the column each shelter statues of a cross-legged sitting bodhisattva while inside the west-facing one, a meditating Buddha. The upper portion of the four walls depicts dancers and musicians in the celestial palace. The west wall has the white-dressed Buddha in the centre with miniature Buddhas. The lower portion of all walls shows yakÀas. The front of the middle portion of the north and south walls illustrates preaching scenes, the rear portion miniature Buddhas.

Cave No. 436

Period of Construction: Sui (renovated during the Five Dynasties).

Contents: The front portion of the east and west slopes of the cave's ceiling illustrates the BhaiÀajyaguru and Maitreya S£tras respectively. The west wall niche houses statues of one Buddha and two disciples. The upper portion of the south wall has celestial mansions and flying figures and the middle portion an incomplete painting of miniature Buddhas.

Cave No. 437

Period of Construction: Northern Wei (renovated in Song).

Contents: Ante-room: Wooden structures repaired in Song Dynasty figure paintings of Maudgaly¡yana etc. Vimalak¢rti-nirde¿a-s£tra (faded) and other bodhisattvas are painted and carved on the west wall. The north wall features BhaiÀajyaguru with a bodhisattva carrying a vajra sword.

Corridor: An eight-armed Avalokite¿vara painted on the ceiling, with faded portraits painted in Song of General Cao Yuanzhong and his wife on opposite walls.

Main Hall: The east-facing niche of the central column shelters a statue of sitting and preaching Buddha. The south-facing niche on the column houses a statue of a meditating bodhisattva, while the north-facing one has a cross-legged sitting bodhisattva. The west wall's upper portion has a Song painting of decorative hangings, the mid portion having miniature Buddhas and the female donors at the bottom. The inverted "V" shaped slopes on the north and south walls each have two flying figures holding flower vase, the upper portion of the extending wall shows decorative hangings above, miniature Buddhas in the middle and male and female donors at the bottom. The north wall's top portion has a Song painting of decorative hangings, an invocation (without letters) above the entrance, to the north and south of the entrance miniature Buddha depictions with male donors and a bodhisattva at the bottom.

Cave No. 438

Period of Construction: Northern Zhou.

Contents: The west wall niche houses a statue of sitting Buddha. Outside the niche, on either side, there is a bodhisattva statue. Each of the north and south walls has a painting of miniature Buddhas with the figures of warriors and donors below.

Cave No. 439

Period of Construction: Northern Zhou.

Contents: The niche on the west wall shelters statues of a Buddha and two disciples, and outside the niche on either side is a bodhisattva statue. The southern wall has dancing, flying figures and a painting of miniature Buddhas.

Cave No. 440

Period of Construction: Northern Zhou (renovated during the Five Dynasties).

Contents: The niche on the west wall houses a Northern Zhou statue of a Buddha. An incomplete painting of the Five Dynasties is on the north wall.

Cave No. 441

Period of Construction: Northern Wei (renovated during the Five Dynasties).

Contents: The west wall of the niche shows halo of Buddha drawn in the Five Dynasties, and the lower portion of north and south walls has a damaged painting of Northern Wei. The outer portion has a painting of disciples and bodhisattvas drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Cave No. 442

Period of Construction: Northern Zhou (renovated during Song and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: The inverted "V" shaped ceiling is destroyed.

Main Hall: The east-facing niche of the central column shelters a statue of sitting-preaching Buddha. The north, south and west-facing niches on the column shelter statues of Buddha and disciples. The upper portion of the west, north and south walls has dancing figures in celestial palace with miniature Buddha figures in the centre. The lower portion of the west and south walls has male donors and yakÀas. Most of these paintings have faded.

Cave No. 443

Period of Construction: Song Dynasty.

Contents: Painted on the west wall are fifteen images of monks, the laity and donors as well as monks belonging to the Sanjie Monastery. The east wall has fourteen images of laity and donors. Along the entrance of the south wall is the chestnut border design.

Cave No. 444

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during Song and Qing).

Contents: Ante-room: There are wooden structures repaired in Song. On the south wall there is a painting drawn in Song of an eleven-headed Avalokite¿vara, Up¡li and P£¤na and the dev¢ of great merits and virtue. Above the entrance of the west wall are portraits of KÀitigarbha, BhaiÀajyaguru; the lower portion is damaged. To the south of the entrance are the Buddhas of the ten directions and bodhisattvas in two groups. To the north of the entrance are the Buddhas of ten directions in three groups. The inside of the north wall is Cave No. 443. Above the entrance are the Buddhas of ten directions in two groups; below them are nine inauspicious deaths. To the east of the entrance is the portrait of eleven-headed Avalokite¿vara. To the west of the entrance are two cross-legged sitting Buddhas, two devar¡jas; below them is a damaged painting of a female donor drawn in Song.

Corridor: The ceiling is damaged in the centre; both the north and south slopes feature nine sitting Buddhas. The south wall shows two male donors and the north wall features two female donors. All these paintings belong to Song.

Main Hall: The niche on the west wall of the main hall shelters statues of two bodhisattvas, two disciples and one devar¡ja cast in High Tang. On the platforms on both sides of the niche are statues of two bodhisattvas and a Chan monk statue shifted from Cave No. 443. The north and south walls feature miniature Buddhas with a preaching scene in the centre. On either side along the entrance of the east wall is a bodhisattva drawn in Song, above and to the north and south of the entrance are paintings of High Tang of Stµupa of Prabh£taratna and Chapter on the Universal Gate of Avalokite¿vara respectively.

Cave No. 445

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties and Western Xia).

Contents: Corridor: Avalokite¿vara adorns the centre of the ceiling; each of the north and south slopes has seven cross-legged sitting Buddhas. Both these paintings are drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Main Hall: The slopes of the caisson ceiling show a pearl net and garlands. On each of the four slopes are miniature Buddhas drawn in Western Xia. The niche on the west wall houses statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, two disciples, two bodhisattvas and two devar¡jas. The south wall illustrates the Amit¡bha-S£tra; below it are male donors painted in Western Xia. Worth noticing is a figure in the picture of Amit¡bha-S£tra on top of a house which looks like a garu·a. The north wall illustrates the Maitreya-S£tra; below it are female donors drawn in Western Xia. Above the entrance of the east wall is a picture of KÀitigarbha Bodhisattva, miniature Buddhas figure to the south of the entrance and a painting of bodhisattvas, precious offerings and flying figures drawn in the Five Dynasties along the entrance.

Cave No. 446

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties).

Contents: The west slope of the ceiling has decorative hangings in the north side and miniature Buddhas drawn in High Tang and the Five Dynasties. Miniature Buddhas drawn in High Tang seen in a corner of the south slope; the corner of north slope features miniature Buddhas drawn in High Tang and the Five Dynasties. The niche on the west wall of the main hall houses statues of a cross-legged sitting Buddha, two disciples, two bodhisattvas and two devar¡jas. The south wall illustrates the Amit¡yus-S£tra with Aj¡ta¿atru to the west. The north wall illustrates Maitreya-S£tra. The top portion of the east wall illustrates the BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra drawn in the Five Dynasties. The top portion of the east wall displays BhaiÀajyaguru. Above the entrance is a painting of Hayagr¢va drawn in the Five Dynasties. To the south and north of the entrance are illustrations of Maµju¿r¢-S£tra and Samantabhadra-S£tra respectively drawn in the Five Dynasties.

Cave No. 447

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties).

Contents: The niche on the west wall houses statues of two bodhisattvas and two devar¡jas, with a Buddha throne in the shape of a horse-hoof in the niche. A corner of the north wall shows a damaged painting of the Five Dynasties.

Cave No. 448

Period of Construction: Early Tang (renovated during the Five Dynasties).

Contents: The east-facing niche on the central column has fragments of the Buddha halo in relief carved on the west wall, while the north and south-facing niches are painted with miniature Buddhas, the west-facing niche illustrates Buddha preaching at G¤dhrak£ta (faded). The west wall has a depiction of a preaching scene in the centre flanked by miniature Buddha paintings (mostly faded). The north and south walls each have s£tra-illustrations drawn in the Five Dynasties. Below the one on the south wall are male donors. All these paintings are blurred.

Cave No. 449

Period of Construction: Middle Tang (renovated in Song).

Contents: Corridor: The ceiling features a damaged picture of bodhisattvas in the centre; the north and south slopes feature four cross-legged sitting Buddhas. The south wall shows the donor image of Cao Yanlu and the north wall that of his wife, the Khotan princess, and two female attendants.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling has coiled dragons and round petalled lotus; the four slopes are covered by floral motifs and decorative hangings. On the east slope are damaged decorative hangings and flying figures. The south, west and north slopes are painted with miniature Buddhas with a st£pa in the centre and inside the st£pa are Buddha, two bodhisattvas with an alms-offering flying figure on both sides. The ceiling of the niche on the west wall shows miniature Buddhas and chess-board patterns in the centre. The four slopes of the niche depict twenty-five auspicious images and four bodhisattvas. Inside the niche there are remnants of a Buddha seat with five disciples and bodhisattvas on both sides on the west wall. The eight categories of supernatural beings are painted on the north and south walls. On both north and south of the niche there are arches with Avalokite¿vara in various forms being highlighted on their ceilings and walls, along with other bodhisattvas. Further away are three scenes of Buddha attending sermon on both sides. West-eastwards on the south wall are illustrations of the Saddharma-pu¸·ar¢ka-S£tra, the Amit¡yus-S£tra, Devat¡-S£tra. On the north wall from west to east are illustrations of the Avatamsaka-S£tra, BhaiÀajyaguru-S£tra and Maitreya-S£tra. To the south and north of the entrance on the east wall are the illustrations of S£tra for Redemption from Indebtedness and S£tra of Filial Piety. On the south side at a lower level are four male donors and on the north side at a lower level are six donor bhikÀus.

Cave No. 450

Period of Construction: High Tang (renovated during Western Xia).

Contents: Corridor: The ceiling shows floral designs in the centre; the south and north slopes are covered by decorative hangings. The north wall features a portrait of standing bodhisattva which is blurred.

Main Hall: The centre of the caisson ceiling shows a painting of two dragons playing with a pearl (actually protecting the dharma ratna); the south and west slopes show floral motifs, circular lines and decorative hangings. The niche on the west wall shelters the stucco image of halo cast in High Tang and paintings drawn in Western Xia of a bodhi canopy, eight flying figures, four halos and flowers. The niches on the north and south walls shelter the stucco image of halo cast in High Tang and paintings of a bodhi canopy, eight flying figures and four halos drawn in Western Xia. Above the entrance on the east wall are preaching scenes; to the north and south of the entrance on the east wall are preaching scenes and bodhisattvas; below this are flowers.

Cave Nos. [ 1 - 50   |  51 - 100  |  101 - 150  |  151 - 200  |  201 - 250 ]

[ 251 - 300   |  301 - 350  |  351 - 400  |  401 - 450  |  451 - 492 ]

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