ACROSS THE HIMALAYAN GAP
Zedong was a writer of his own right which fact is eclipsed by his political
career, particularly as the supremo of the people’s Republic of China from
1949 to 1976. His influence on the development of Chinese literature was
immense, including the negative effect of the Great Proletarian Cultural
Revolution which sparked off from the literary realm and targeted writers in
a big way (Though the villain of the piece was his wife, Jiang Qing). The
Cultural Revolution and the Anti-Rightist Movement preceding it completely
killed the prospects of a refreshing idea of turning the Chinese literary
realm into a garden of blooming flowers. To quote Mao’s formulation, it
was “Baihua baijia, zhengming”
(Let hundred flowers blown, and hundred schools contend). The letter
“bai (hundred) need not be taken literally to mean the exact number
indicated. It is a Chinese euphemism to mean “a lot, even
“innumerable”. Thus, we see in Mao’s “hundred flowers” scheme a
great vision of enlivening the Chinese literary scene, even if the destroyer
of the vision was the visionary himself.
brilliance of Mao’s “blooming garden” vision should be viewed from a
historical perspective. There is a dichotomy between “Great Tradition”
and “Little Tradition” in every civilization, but in China we find a
creative society in literature, both written and oral (i.e. “folk”
literature), on the one hand, and a very suppressive regime which frowned at
writings which either threatened the ruling moral authority (mainly
Confucian oriented), or were considered subversive in political content.
This was the reality of “imperial China”. During the Republican period,
although there was much greater literary freedom, there was not much real
encouragement given to literary works from the top. The May Fourth Movement
was an unprecedented freedom struggle on the part of Chinese writers to
demolish the repressive regime. In fact, the Chinese communist movement was
virtually a younger brother of the May Fourth Movement, albeit it overgrew
its elder brother hundred times. The birth of the People’s Republic of
China brought some of the erstwhile freedom fighters in literature to the
position of authorities. Had Mao allowed them a free hand in developing
literature, it would have ushered in an unprecedented blooming in the garden
of Chinese literature. Thus, we see Mao Zedong playing a double role in the
1950s. On the one hand, as an ideological prophet and guide. he occasionally
frightened literary and other creators, like its criticism on “Wu Xun Zhuan”, the film that depicted a typical Confucian good man
Wu Xun. On the other hand, there was his launching of the “Two Hundred”
(Hundred Flowers and hundred Schools) movement which was truly brilliant.
Cultural Revolution (1966-1969) was followed up by another seven long years
of the reign of terror by the Gang of Four leaded by Jiang Qing over Chinese
writers. Following the fall of the Gang of Four and their subsequent arrest,
a sense of relief was evident among the masses particularly the
intellectuals and writers. It brought to the fore a renewed hope, which was
strengthened by the political changes culminating in the Third Plenum of the
Eleventh Central Committee of the CPC in December 978, seeing Deng Xiaoping
and his associates in control of power both in the Party and in the Stale.
The most important agenda of the new leadership consisted of economic
development and modernization of China. This leadership was pragmatic enough
to realise that if the drive for economic development and modernization was
to be successful, the co-operation of the intellectuals was essential. This
realization was soon reflected in the leadership’s attitude towards
knowledge at-d the intellectuals who were the repository of knowledge. For
instance, Deng Xiaoping’s talks and speeches delivered over 1977 and 1978
indicate that the leadership was stressing the importance of knowledge and
intellectuals in general, and science and technology, and scientific and
technical personnel in particular. The intellectuals, who had been the
targets of all the major political campaigns during the Mao Era, were
grossly demoralized and apprehensive, and therefore lacked initiative. As a
result, the new leadership, some of whom were genuinely in favour of greater
intellectual autonomy (even though within a given framework) started a
series of confidence-building measures to engage the co-operation of the
the sphere of literature, the first step in this confidence-building process
was the Fourth National Congress of the All-China Federation of Literary and
held jointly with the Third National Congress of Writers in October, 1979.
While discussing the role of literature and art, Zhou Yang said in his
report to the Congress:
eulogize and to expose…are the two aspects of a question. The crux of the
matter is what stand to take, what to eulogize and what to expose. Literary
and artistic works must portray the bright side of the life of the people
and also expose the seamy side of society. Socialist literature and art
perform the task of both criticism and self-criticism. We should not.
criticize our enemies only but should also take a critical attitude towards
ourselves and our endeavours; otherwise, we cannot make progress.”
defence of critical realism by Zhou Yang was a definite departure from
Mao’s literary doctrine which was being reviewed and modified to adopt to
the new socio-political environment of the post-Mao Era.
confidence-building measures coupled with the series of changes introduced
in December 1976, not only gave an impression of China moving forward but
also had a far-reaching effect w) almost every sphere of Chinese
intellectual life. What resulted was a comparatively favourable atmosphere
for intellectual activity. The Chinese literary scene responded by
displaying unprecedented vitality and variety. The literature that took
shape had such new elements hitherto unseen in socialist China. These
elements had a gamut of literary, social and political dimensions and thus,
cannot be judged in terms of literary parameters alone. Nevertheless, these
elements were so distinct that they became significant features of this new
body of literature in so much that the post-Mao literature can justifiably
be given the status of New Literature. Therefore, the attempt will be to
first identify these new elements and then examine their social, literary or
political dimension. Whereas some of these elements were common to both
poetry and prose, others were distinctive characteristics of either poetry
of the realist school continued in the post-Mao era. Majority of such works
and their authors remained within the limits of current literary policy.
Poetry of the type which had sung for the revolution and the new socialist
life during the 40s, 50s and 60s now sang for modernization. Full of
didacticism, a lot of these poems were run of the mill, boring and sounded
almost like rhymed political slogans. One such poem had the following lines:
starting from 1976 two new trends became prominent in poetry. The first is
the poetry of protest, which emerged closely linked with the downfall of the
Gang of Four and Democracy Wall, and the second being the poetry of the
modernist school which has been termed “obscure poetry” (menglong
shi) in China. These two streams often intermingle. Those involved in
them were mostly younger writers.
the Democracy Movement of late 1976, there was a profusion of wall posters
expounding views on various political and social issues, advocating
different roads of China’s development and modernization, petitioning for
justice and democracy, protesting against the tyranny of the Gang of Four
during Cultural Revolution and expressing hopes for the future under the new
leadership. Innumerable poems appeared cm the Democracy Wall. The genesis of
this poem-wave goes back to April 5th,1976, when on the occasion of the Qing
Ming Festival (Pure Brightness Festival, a Chinese traditional festival of
ancestor worship) a huge crowd of Chinese ordinary citizens assembled in
Tiananmen Square to pay homage to me memory of the late Premier Zhou Enlai
and to protest against the extremist policies of the Gang of Four. The crowd
not only placed wreaths on the Hero’s Memorial, but also posted poems on
the Memorial eulogizing Zhou Enlaj and his policies.
the Democracy Movement poems were also circulated in the form of booklets
and published in unofficial magazines
entitled Today Explorations, Grass on
the plain, The People’s, Forum, The Spring of Beijing, China’s Human
Rights, Science, Democracy and Law, Dandelion, Harvest, April 5th Forum etc.
The concerns of these poems were more or less the same as the wall posters,
but had a more vivid tone of protest and that is why these poems have often
been referred to as poetry of protest. Most of these poems are not
outstanding aesthetically, albeit they are replete in patriotic emotion and
noble sentiments. I cite some specimens below:
subtle political allegory
the Future by
with strong ideological (socialist, flavour :
Eternity of Deeds and Misdeeds by
From the City of the Sun
by Bei Dao
it is not the literary style or the aesthetic skill that set the poetry of
protest apart from the mainstream of poetry in socialist China. What is most
significant about them is that they symbolise a political act,
politicisation popular sentiment expressed through the medium of literature.
No matter what the theme of the poem was, be it the misery of people dying
in cold or of hunger or love for one’s close ones or anything else, the
feelings were always expressed in a greater political context. There are two
aspects of this political act: (1) the need to express, and (2) the
opportunity of expression.
need to express must have been absolutely overwhelming in all walks of life
all those who felt it necessary to rhyme - workers, peasants, intellectuals
and so on. The poetry of protest indicates a widespread sense of anger,
frustration, anguish and disillusionment as a result of a decade long
Cultural Revolution compounded by numerous earlier political campaigns
affecting almost every sphere of human existence. These feelings probably
had reached that threshold where the very act of expressing became a need of
utmost urgency. It is this urgent need that transformed socio-political
consciousness into concrete spontaneous expression, thus making it a
other aspect is the point in history when consciousness was transformed into
an act of expression. It was a period, which has since been named
“Beijingzhi chun” (the Beijing Spring) when the stranglehold of politics
became relaxed following the demise of Mao Zedong and the downfall of the
Gang of Four. It was also a period when the political atmosphere was
comparatively relaxed and tolerant. Therefore, free expressions in various
forms, including literature, suddenly exploded which was unthinkable in the
past. This combination of the long suppressed sentiments and the relaxed
atmosphere became conducive to the emergence of poetry of protest.
so-called “obscure poetry” and the controversy surrounding this genre
came to the fore in 1979. In contrast to the poetry of the socialist realist
school, the “obscure poetry” had the following features:
poems were short in length, sometimes as short as one word, as in the case
of ‘Life” by Bei Dao.
Content of the poem:
were much more symbolically subtle and indirect compared to the long poems
over-burdened with explicit slogans. Many of them also possessed a crisp
political allegory. e.g., Gu Cheng’s “One Generation”:
most impressive feature of these poems is their experimentation with images,
as in Gu Cheng’s:
which was considered avant-garde in the 1910s among the Anglo-American
poets, was very much a part of Modernist poetry in Taiwan in 1960s. Since
then, the Taiwan poetry has graduated from its modernist phase. But most of
these contemporary young poets of mainland China had not been exposed (at
least till 1979) to either Western or Taiwanese Imagism.
This seems to indicate that the modernist phase in poetry had only just
begun in 1979 in socialist China -- echoing the Crescent Moon School of the
1920s and 1930s.
from the concentrated colour imagery, other features of Imagism, like the
montage - the juxtaposition of images or sharp, perspicuous imagery were
also being employed by some young poets. While the juxtaposition of images
have no explicit linguistic connection, the perspicuous imagery often jolts
readers by sudden metaphoric transference. “Curve” and “A Walk in the
Rain” by Gu Cheng are examples of these two methods respectively.
young writers of “obscure poetry” have often been dubbed unhealthy and
unpatriotic in the first place, and then, unappreciated for being obscure
and difficult to understand. In an article which inaugurated the debate and
criticism, a senior poet Gong Liu described these poems as “disgraceful”
and “denigrating”. Referring to the following lines by Gu Cheng:
Chinese people grow from the milk of the Yangtse and the Yellow River. Who,
upon seeing these two rivers, is not proud of the glory of the
motherland’s landscape? Who has ever heard of Indians disparaging the
Ganges, or Egyptians the Nile? Even Americans compare the Mississippi to a
to him it will logically-follow that such poems are unhealthy because it is
a subjective impression of the Cultural Revolution and its aftermath hence
with bourgeois or petit-bourgeois individualism.
charge of difficulty and obscurity laid by the older poets and critics is
probably not so much of a criticism against difficulty but more so against
their content. Because all the “obscure” poets have been concerned with
the Cultural Revolution and some of their poems are as critical and
political as some trends in prose, like “scar literature”. e.g.,
“China, My Key is lost” by Liang Xiaobin:
is probably one of the best political poems after 1949. The political
allegory is unmistakable. It has succeeded in conveying a political message,
hence not obscure. There is a dark innuendo, a sense of loss and sadness and
yet a strong hope. While the “scar literature” has been received
positively and encouragingly, such poems have been crtticized. Shu Ting’s reaction to
this discriminatory treatment is:
believe that creative writing and literary criticism should be allies; the
task force of poetry is new invading forbidden areas and is in need of
artillery support... [It is not convincing] that fiction be allowed to write
about the “wounds” but poetry forbidden to deal with the sighs; or to
stress that everything is fine now and poets need only joyfully sing the
praises of spring; or to discuss the problems of youth and condemn the
depression, helplessness, and bewilderment of the young people without
attacking the social factors that cause this mental state”
of these young poets and their works have come from Sun Shaozhen, Xie Man,
Xu Jingya, Gu Cheng and Ai Qing, on the issue of free verse. Of them Sun
Shaozhen is the most unorthodox and courageous. In a symposium organized by
the magazine Poetry, attended by critics and representatives of well-known
journals, he argued that “art has its internal laws of development” and
therefore literary criticism “cannot focus just on the reflection of life
and ignore the art of poetry”. In March, 1981, Sun published an article
entitled “New Aesthetic Principles Are Rising”
in which he evaluated these so-called “obscure poetry” as indications of
the rise of some new aesthetic principles in socialist China. The main
points of Sun’s articles are:
· Instead of direct glorification of life, these poets are engaged in
exploring “the secrets of life already dissolved in the heart and mind”.
· They are keen on the expression of the “self”, because they
believe that “the individual should enjoy a higher status in society,
since it is people as individual who creates society”. Sun regarded the
sense of alienation and melancholy in some of these poems as a reflection of
the distortion of human relationships, a legacy of the Cultural Revolution.
· Contemporary poetry must change usual reading habits and liberate
readers from the “stubborn grips of artistic Revolution”.
these, it was the second principle of Sun Shaozhen that not only touched a
raw nerve but hit off a separate debate on the question ‘expression of
self”. The pro-Maoist literary critics have always viewed this concept as
an idea that contradicted the collective role of literature in a socialist
society. On this issue, the opinion of the young poets has been most
representatively elaborated upon by Gu Cheng:
‘The old kind of poetry has always propagandized about a ‘non-individual” ‘I’ or ‘self’, an ‘I’ that is self-denying and self-destructive, an ‘I’ that is constantly reduced to a grain of sand, a road-paving pebble, a cog-wheel, a steel screw. In shod, never a person, a human being who can think, doubt, and have emotions and desires.... In short, a robot, a robot ‘l’. This kind of ‘l’ may have a religious beauty of self-sacrifice, but, as an ‘I’ who has eradicated his most concrete individual being, he himself finally loses control and is destroyed. The new kind of ‘self’ is born on this heap of ruins.”
literary developments in post-Mao Chinese prose are much more complex than
poetry. There are complex interactions between themes, literary styles and
artistic skill that in their various intricate combinations have opened up
an exciting vista unprecedented in socialist China. Needless to say that
this complexity makes it difficult to classify literary works in terms of
any singe given parameter. Let me try to bring out the striking features of
the liberalized atmosphere following the fail of the Gang of Four, a new
trend emerged in literature, that revealed the tyranny of the Gang of Four
and the trauma suffered by people during the Cultural Revolution in
particular and all past political campaigns in general. This new trend in
literature, called the Scar Literature (Shanghen
wenxue) were mostly written by writers in their late thirties and
forties and were published in state-sponsored literary journals and
newspapers. Scar Literature criticized past mistakes and exposed the darker
aspects of socialist society In contrast to the officially approved
‘socialist realism” or “revolutionary romanticism” of the Mao era in
which the writers were supposed to only extol the shining achievements of
socialism, Scar literature saw a return to the ‘critical realism” of the
May Fourth Movement tradition and thus marked a new phase in Chinese
socialist literature. What is more important is the fact that whereas the
“critical realism” of the May Fourth period was directed at feudal
social order and political bankruptcy and compromise of the Republican
government, in the Scar Literature it was directed against the past mistakes
and misdeeds of a regime and system still in control of the country Not only
there is no such precedence of such type of open literary expression of
discontent (except of course the odd political allegories like “The
Dismissal of Hai Rui from office” by Wu Han in early 1960s) but even a
wave d such expression was impossible in the past. Considering the period
when Scar Literature dominated the scene, the causes of its emergence were
of course the same as those of protest poetry.
Scar Literature was named so after the short story called “Scar”
by Liu Xinhua. It portrays me story of a young woman who is forced to
abandon her “counter-revolutionary” parents during Cultural Revolution
and who in turn is abandoned by the young man she loves because of her
tainted family background. Following the publication of “Scar”, many
real-life stones of family tragedy were printed as fiction all over the
country. For the most part of 1977 and 1978, Chinese literature was
dominated by Scar Literature with broadening themes depicting many aspects
of psychological and emotional wounds suffered by the people in the past.
Scar Literature came to be the symbol of popular anger directed at the Gang
of Four and past campaigns and political persecutions.
feature that was common in Scar Literature was a kind of formula of a
victim, wrongly accused during the Cultural Revolution or at some earlier
political campaign, (he victim’s steadfast belief in socialism and love of
motherland in spite of persecution, the extent of persecution. attack on
extremist political belief and its inhuman treatment of people and veiled
attack on Mao’s theory of continuous class struggle. Most of the works
suffer from lack of subtlety. As in the case of Dai Houying’s “Man,
(Ren Ah Ren) in which the author
was too eager to proclaim the cause of humanism to avoid naked accusations.
This work like many others in the post-Mao period, became famous not so much
for its merits but for the authors courage and official disapproval. Some
noteworthy works of Scar Literature are ‘The Homeroom Teacher” by Lio
Xinwu, “The Transcript” by Liu Jinlan, “Three Professors” by Cao
Guanlong, “The Gap” by Lao Hong, “At middle age” by Shen Rong and
“Man, Oh, Man” by Dai Houying. In
the first phase, criticism was limited to the past experience and almost all
the “scar” stories expressed hope and confidence in the future under the
new leadership. But, they gradually extended to other issues like mindless
dogmatism, abuse of power and privilege, corruption, prison conditions and
so on. Encouraged by the call of the Third Plenum of the Eleventh Central
Committee in December, 1979, in which writers and intellectuals were urged
to “liberate thought”, the dimension of venting suppressed complaints
grew wider and wider. So much so that a literary exploration got underway in
1979 to probe into soda1 problems beyond the making of the Gang of Four.
literature published from 1979 to mid-1981 has been called “New Realism
Literature” by Helen F. Siu
and Zelda Sterns.
“New Realism Literature”, like the Scar Literature, was published in
state-sponsored literary magazines. What differentiated “New Realism
Literature” from Scar Literature was that it dealt with issues of the
post-Mao Chinese society and in terms of exposure, it was much more daring
and specific. The “New Realism Literature” has sometimes been referred
to as “exposure literature” in China and by the very implication of the
term, includes not only the extended Scar Literature but critique of social
abnormalcy, e.g. plays like ‘If I
were Real” and film scripts “In
the Archives of the Society”
and ‘Unrequited Lover”,
in addition to a, host of reportage. Maoist orthodoxy had sanctioned
“exposure” only in the case of the enemy and therefore this kind of
“exposure” is politically incorrect
is a question of exposing and reforming from within which may be analyzed in
the context of Engels’ evaluation of Balzac. Engels concluded, “That
Balzac thus was compelled to go against his own class sympathies and
political prejudices, that he saw the necessity of the downfall of his
favourite nobles and described them as people deserving no better
fate...that I consider
of the greatest triumphs of Realism...” This means that, in spite
of a writer’s class interest, his truthful portrayal can result in
underlining certain shortcomings and wrong tendencies in his own class. This
is something which can possibly happen under realism, a style that has been
viewed as supreme in traditional Marxist literary thought. Therefore, the
“exposure” that results from truthful portrayal by writers of extended
Scar Literature (dealing with post-Mao socio-political issues), is nothing
but a classic case of literature performing its rightful rote. Shaped by a
special form of social consciousness, literature, in turn, is trying to
influence social reality by revolving against certain unacceptable
tendencies in the system.
(Baogao wenxue) is a journalistic
report written in literary style and based on true events and concrete
facts. The pace-setter of this style undoubtedly was Liu Binyan. His
“Between Monsters and Men”
was a pioneering work that exposed the corruption within the party with
stark vividness. It earned him immense popularity for his unflinching
courage in using literature to redress social and political injustice.
“Between Monsters and Men” has since then been regarded as a landmark in
the resurgence of Critical Realism.
remarkable is the play ‘If I were
Real”which deals with the sensitive issue of nepotism and abuse of
power by the party officials, while the
film script “Unrequited Love” portrays the honor of deification and Mind
dogmatism that tramples humanism and patriotism under foot. Hu Yaobang while
admitting that writers had a right to be concerned with real problems,
criticized ‘If I were Real for
choosing an exception to generalise about the Party and thus for giving an
“Unrequited Love” was
criticized in April 1981, two years after its first publication. The author
was charged with the violation of “Pour Cardinal Principles” and with
unfavourable comparison of socialist China with capitalist America.
Criticism of “Unrequited Love” was the first hint of the campaign against
‘bourgeois liberalization” in literature and art that was to come later.
important concern that surfaced in Chinese literature in the first half of
1980s involved questions of universal human nature, humanism and alienation.
The theme of universal human nature came to be manifested as a more
humanised interpretation of Marxism which acknowledged me existence of
nobleness and compassion in politically “wicked” characters. Qn the
other hand, humanism was portrayed by characters that were humane towards
their “class enemies” and recognized the human qualities of the “class
enemies”. This kind d exploration of complex human nature is reminiscent
of the “middle man” theory of early 1960s in China when Shao Quanlin,
Zhou Yang, Zhao Shuli and others advocated characters of flesh and Mood who
would have their inner contradictions and defects of character in spite of
their faith in Communist ideology. Here is a typical observation:
characters who treat Communist ideology as the highest principle have inner
contradictions and inner defects.... We must not shirk the difficulties...of
contradictions and struggles in life.... Cheap optimism can only
the experimentation to study the multiple facets of human nature and human
situations, many works written in the first half of 1990s were crude in
skill and contrived in plots. Typical of this trend are Li Yingru’s “Miaoqing”,
Zhang Xiaotian’s ‘Luxuriant Grass
on the plain”, Yu Mei’s “A,
man...”, Liu Xinwu’s “Ruyi”
and Li Ping’s “when the Last Rays
of the Sun Grew Dim”.
some of these works generated a lot of controversy after their publication
and were criticized as unhealthy, they expressed a certain optimism
concerning human nature. Other works of this period focussed on distorted
humanity and alienated existence of individuals and in so doing made use of
“psychological realism” to bare thoughts and consciousness of the
characters. There is a certain parallel between the prose of this kind and
“obscure poetry” both in literary style and in the treatment of themes.
These prose pieces, like most obscure poetry, grasp the complexities of the
inner feeling with a subtle sophistication.
best in this category are “On the
and “Dreams of My Age-group”
by Zhang Xinxin. By the
astute use of imagery and symbolism, she relentlessly excavated the inner
world of individuals and complexities of relationships. Though, she denies
being a Modernist, her style and method are reminiscent of Western
the time when the concerns like human nature, humanism and alienation were
emerging as a trend in literature, some literary theoretician like Wang
Ruoshui had started discussing the relevance of these concepts in
contemporary China. Wang Ruoshui was of the opinion that alienation can
exist in a socialist society as well as a capitalist society. Apart Iran
being influenced by Western and Eastern European Marxists, Wang based his
arguments on Marx’s early writings and said that alienation can exist in
any system that produces forces which oppress people. He argued the Chinese
socialist system since 1949 had produced personality cult, irrational
economic policies bureaucratic indifference, corruption, privileges, selfish
individualism, all of which had diminished human worth, alienation was
inborn, He called for an ideological change to counter the repressive
dehumanized manifestations of socialist China, which in turn would end
alienation, He said “it is highly necessary to prevent these servants of
the people transforming themselves into masters of the people”.
In this call for revival of humanism, he regarded alienation as a negative
manifestation in the socialist system which
normally should have enhanced human worth. He also added that principles for
revival of humanism could be found in Marxism and thus reiterated his faith
in socialism. In other words, he stressed the need to reject the orthodox
model of socialism, one that was established in Soviet Union and China where
all the initiatives always came from top. Because “not every word and deed
of the leaders absolutely and undoubtedly conforms to the people’s
interests” and ‘leaders sometimes can make mistakes”.
Ruoshui’s perceptions on humanism and alienation must have been shared by
numerous writers who composed “obscure poetry” or produced works like
‘On the Same Horizon’. It
seems that when Wang analyzed the complex social phenomenon in a theoretical
framework was perceived by these young practitioners of literature as they
‘tried to mirror their living experiences. An interesting thing to note is
the fact that some of these very young writers themselves are somewhat
alienated from the system and thus illustrated the negative dehumanizing
manifestations spelt out by Wang Ruoshui. The significance of Wang’s
argument on the existence of alienation in socialist society is that it
indicates the emergence of a new class within a supposedly classless society
and the polarization of the society, creating a ruling elite which has
become indifferent towards the masses and divorced from their interest. In
their eagerness to assume the role of the guardians of socialism, they
simply intoxicated themselves in the wine of
concern for humanism and alienation by both theoreticians like Wang Ruoshui
and literary practitioners like the “Scar” writers and the implications
of some negative manifestation as analyzed by them resulted in their
becoming the targets of the Campaign against Spiritual Pollution launched in
late 1983. Meetings were held all over the country, articles were published
in leading newspapers and journals, castigating “spiritual pollution”
that included not only the alienation discourse but also concepts such as
modernism, individualism, existentialism etc. People who were associated
with these concepts, either through theoretical analysis or literary
expression, were deemed to have wanted to undermine orthodox ideology with
“degenerated” Western ideas,
the post-Mao period and the Reform-induced free economy resulted in a marked
increase in erotic demerits and sexual themes in Chinese literature which
was immediately frowned upon by the conservatives in the Party. Depiction of
sexual relations and erotic scenes, however, were largely hidden in lyrical
euphemism and in most works they were only subservient to socio-political
from the comeback of “yellow literature” which had taken a long vacation
out of Mao’s China, some of these works gave a wide variety of survey of
status of women in traditional and contemporary Chinese society in terms of
women’s sexual dependence on men their social conditioning linked to this
dependence. Some works of this
genre worth mentioning are “Chastee Women” by Gu Hua, “A
Long Night in Spring” by Ye Nan, “Madam
Hel” and “Tiangou by Jia
Ping’ao ‘and “Woman
is the other half
by Zhang Xianliang. Of these, the works by Jia Ping’ao and Zhang Xianliang
have succeeded in taking a more objective and sensitive view, of the issues
raised rather than flippantly sensationalising the potentially sensational
themes. Specially the “Woman is the Other half of Mari”
has taken an integrated look at the human reality, leaving behind an
interesting study of psychological realism even after the immediate
social-political relevance is completely exhausted.
to say that these issues must have existed in the Chinese society for a long
time. In socialist China as love could be portrayed only by shared political
belief and revolutionary enthusiasm until some years back, the general
notion of sex could only be implied under me canopy of marriage. The fact
that these issues were finally brought out boldly into the open literature
can probably be attributed to (a) a conscious admission that such issues are
social phenomena, and (b) an exposure to a variety of sociological concepts
which could be identified with the contemporary social reality and through
foreign literature and academic readings. Of course, the comparatively
relaxed intellectual climate where such themes could be given expression is
a decisive factor, The re-emergence of such themes is significant because it
is linked with the continuous effort of the writers to broaden the scope of
trend during 1985-86, was the preoccupation with innovation and technique.
The inspiration for this trend could be a changed perception of human
existence, i.e., human existence could be perceived not only in the
framework of socio-political environment, as was the case so far since May
Fourth Movement, but also in individualistic and psychological frame of
reference. It is this changed perception which in turn may have emerged in
the form of subjectivity, and irrationality and a yearning for the exotic,
Mention must be made of “Ah Mei in
Pensive Mood on a Sunny Day” and
“My Affairs in That World” by
Can Xue, “you Have no Choice” and “Blue
Skies and Green Seas” (specially mentioned for the technical
innovations) by Liu Suola, “Coming-Going
Back” and “Woman, Woman,
Woman” by Han Shaogong. “King
of Trees” and ” Winds and
Streams Everywhere” by Ah Cheng and “Scarlet Sorghum” by MO Yan. Though the trend in general is a revolt
against realism, the works are too few and diverse to be placed under a
single genre. Some of these works have been acclaimed. However, innovations
in general have been received with little enthusiasm by most, including the
should say that this trend of the subjective, illogical and irrational
perceptions of human existence was reminiscent of certain features of
“obscure poetry”. Like “obscure poetry”, this kind of expression of
“self” is symbolic of a rejection of the past (both in terms of society
and literature) and of the alienated distorted existence in the present.
debate on the concept of alienation exploded again when Liu Binyan’s
“The Second Kind of Loyalty”
was published in 1985. In this work of reportage, Liu contrasted the loyalty
of Lei Feng brand which unquestioningly followed the dictum of the Party and
Mao in everything and, in Liu’s report, his two protagonists dissented
with the Party and Mao for the cause of the society.
It was unprecedented in Communist Chinese literature that approbation
for dissidence emerged. Liu projected his protagonists to be loyal to the
motherland, the society and even the Party, who fearlessly criticized the
Party leadership for their shifting political line not always in conformity
with the ideology. Like their literati predecessors, Liu’s protagonists
wrote letters to the leadership admonishing them for leading the country to
disaster: “For the last time I give you most sincere advice.... I think
the Central Committee...has committed a series of mistakes, and many of them
are mistakes in prcinciple....The main me IS the worship of the individual
or what is called the cult of the individual”.
Dirrectly petitioning to Mao, me of the protagonists said: “you do not
permit others to criticize your shortcomings and mistakes...in the course of
time, those who will be left around you will be a group of villains holding
sway.... I am extremely worried about the destiny of the Party and state.
With feelings of utmost sincerity.... I hope you will distance yourself from
petty men and bring men of noble character close to yourself”.
The conclusion reached by Liu Binyan was whereas unquestioning obedience
only strengthened a repressive system, sincere criticism of politically
engaged intellectuals must expose the injustice that is being done in the
name of politics and must speak up for the redressal of people’s
grievances. In doing so, these intellectuals would show a kind of loyalty
that was infinitely more desirable for the welfare of the society, the
country and even the party.
the same time as the second controversy on alienation, another formulation
that generated debate was Liu Zaifu’s views on vulgar sociology. In a
series of articles published over late 1985 and early 1996, Liu discussed
the importance of individual consciousness and subjectivity in literature
and art. Liu zaifu’s arguments were based m the contention that the worth
of literature cannot be judged only m the basis of society’s economic and
political conditions, but, more importantly, in terms of coherence and
originality of writers which were products of individual consciousness and
subjective projection. He argued that of economic and political conditions
became the only parameters of evaluating literature or in other words, if
literature was evaluated on the scale of literary theories that concentrated
on the external laws, it would amount to subsuming individual consciousness-
and that would be anti-art.
Liu further argued that people, who are the raw material of literature, are
complex in all their contradictory preoccupations, dilemma, obsessions and
fantasies and can not be analyzed in a simplistic frame of reference like
socio-economic relations and to do so would be nothing but “vulgar
Therefore, to comprehend the complex reality with its innumerabe human
facets, the artists and writers need to do more than logical reasoning and
in this regard inspiration and imagination are relevant and necessary in
creative writing. Liu Zaifu, thus, not only struck a powerful Mow against
Mao’s Yanan Forum Talks on literature, But also refused to make any
concession to the concept of “socialist realism”.
early 1986, when Llu Zaifu was criticized for his views on Vulgar
sociology”, there were indications of a campaign in the offing. By
September, the Sixth Plenum of the CPC’s Twelfth Congress was convened and
it passed a set of guidelines for the “construction of socialist spiritual
civilization”. This probably was the beginning of the campaign against
“bourgeois liberalization” which was launched in early 1987, right after
a series of student demonstrations in December, 1986. Many leading political
and literary figures were severely criticized, and though in much milder
terms than in the past during the Mao era, they were upbraided by either
resignation, expulsion or removal from editorial posts. Most writers
protested by remaining silent and literature, both quantitatively and
qualitatively, went into a slide for the whole of 1987.
the years from 1983 to 1986, the Chinese intellectuals had become intensely
interested in Chinese “culture”. In the literary realm, it came to be
known as a “searching-for-roots fever”. The other side of this
root-searching was criticism of not only traditional Chinese culture, but
also of Chinese intellectual character. The criticism of Chinese national
character was embodied in the view held by an increasing number of liberal
Chinese intellectuals that the root of China’s political problems lies in
China’s historical tradition. What followed was a conscious need to
discover new cultural concepts and ideals that would revitalize China at all
fronts. With me ongoing “Open-Door Policy” and exposure to the West, the
intellectuals naturally looked for answers in Western concepts and -isms.
Their search included philosophy, literature, art and social sciences and
came up with a mind-boggling variety. In literature the range was from
stream-of-consciousness, modernism, futurism to New Criticism,
structuralism, post-structuralism and post-modernism. The whole scene was
stimulating, though somewhat superficial.
culture fever culminated in the creation of a six-part television serial
called “River Elegy”
(He Shang). According to this
serial, virtually all of China’s contemporary problems stemmed from
Chinese tradition. Presenting a parable on the past, present and future of
China, it argued that the Yellow River, symbolic of Chinese civilization and
culture, is dead and advocated that for any further progress of the Chinese
people, this inwardly focused Yellow River Civilization must emerge out of
its constrained existence and embrace the open Blue Ocean, symbolic of modem
Western culture. Though consciously praising China’s current efforts of
reform, it held China’s socialist present, jointly with traditional past,
responsible for the drowning of China.
agenda put forward by “River Elegy”
was to form a “class” composed of the broad majority of Chinese public,
who, with the initiative of a young generation of progressive
democracy-minded officials and rational market-oriented entrepreneurs, will
drive China forward towards modernity, As the Harvard Professor Tu Weiming
“River Elegy” was a cultural essay, intended to serve the dual
purpose of articulating the impatience of the young and exposing the inertia
of the octogenerian orthodox idaofogists.“
the commentary written by a team of talented young reformers led by Su
Xiaokang, the serial gave way to an anti-traditional wave followed by an
unprecedented cultural debate: “Whither China?”
controversial serial jolted the whole nation. Apart from a common complaint
that it “forgot the ancestors” i.e., it took insufficient pride in
Chinese tradition, the popular response was generally positive within the
obvious limitation of the ordinary masses not being much exposed to
intellectual debate and discourse. On the other hand, the officially
inspired criticism denounced the wholesale Westernization propagated by the
serial. At once, there was a warmth of perplexed and variegated response
from the Chinese intellectuals. There was even a schizophrenia in the
official reaction with the majority of Party veterans singing disapproval
while the Party General Secretary, Zhao Ziyang, was said to be elated. The
serial was withdrawn from public viewing for a year, and was re-telecast in
1988. There was so much confusion that Li Zehou, one of the initiators of
culture fever, not only dissociated himself from the views taken by “River
Elegy”, but also indicated a new direction for the search for the
roots of present problems:” I do not believe that the key problem, as of
now, is the so-called culture or “enlightenment”, but reform of the
political-economic system. Those people who are opposed to ‘tradition”
so vehemently have covered up precisely this point. The implication of their
excessive criticism of “culture” is to say that the fault lies equally
with all of us. This, in turn, tends to exonerate those who really should
bear responsibility. There is no way I can believe that the fault lies more
with us than with them. The problem before us is how to reform our extremely
irrational, feudalistic, and copiously flawed system.”
similar epic serial “Sunrise in the
Heart was in the making to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the May
Fourth Movement, but never saw the daylight in the aftermath of the
Tiananmen Square Incident in 1989.
quantitatively speaking post-Mao Chinese literature has been dominated by
realism of the Deep Realist School (in which Critical Realism has emerged as
a force to reckon with), there has been same exciting and stimulating
experimentation with technique. Some of these experiments have been
successful in that these innovations have enriched and more importantly,
managed to create a comprehensiveness in a given literary work consiously
balancing between and mutually complementing the theme and technique. There
are also works in which the writer has been so preoccupied with technical
innovations that they made stiltedly difficult reading. Nevertheless, the
exploration itself was path-creating conducive to the enrichment of Chinese
of the Chinese literary critics have distinguished between (1) those works
which have realistic contents, but has used certain modernist techniques,
and (2) works which are more modernist both in terms of content and method.
In this category, modernist techniques like stream-of-consciousness,
symbolism and impressionism have often been used by many well-known writers
like Wang Meng, Zong Pu, Deng Gang and Zhang Xinxin. This is the category
which probably forms the major share of post-Mao Chinese literature that are
not within the limits of Deep Realist School. This category has been called
the Open Realist School in China.
Meng’s experimentation with the stream-of-consciousness technique is
remarkable in the fact that it helps to vividly convey the richness and the
rapidly changing of life. In “Kite Streamers”, Wang Meng describes two
young lovers who have nowhere to go, nowhere they can meet undisturbed. The
description is given by an outside narrator:
look, and a whole night is used up. Our vast and boundless sky and land, our
magnificent three dimensional space - is there any comer for the young
people to talk, embrace and kiss? We only need a very small place.
you - you have mom for towering heroes and earthshaking rebels, for vermin
and villains that besmear heaven and earth, for so many
battlefields,...meeting grounds, execution grounds...but you have no room
for the passionate love between Susu and Jiayuan: One 160 centimetres tall
and weighing 48 kilograms: the other barely 170 centimetres in height and
weighing 54 kilograms.”
this humorous description, the writer juxtaposes a series of images and
enables the readers to perceive an ordinary aspect of the as an intense
subjective experience. At the same time the narrative is rooted in visual
images of a typically Chinese setup. Thus, this experimentation is
successful because the use of this technique does not make the author lose
Hs grip on the reality of Chinese life. In Wang Meng’s own words:
we write about psychology, feelings, and consciousness we have not forgotten
that they are reflections of life: we have not forgotten their social
significance. It is just that we hope to be able to write with
“exceptional insight” and with more depth, more distinctive
characteristics, more “flavour”. For all these reasons, our
“stream-of-consciousness” is not a stream-of-consciousness that urges
people to escape reality by an inward flight; it is rather a healthy and
substantial self-feeling that urges people to face born the objective and
the subjective worlds, to love life and to love human heart.”
Zhang Xinxin’s works, which are reminiscent of Western modernism because
of the techniques she used, are also rooted in contemporary Chinese urban
life. In “On the Same Horizon”, she
has made use of symbolism and imagery to portray the love-hate relationship
of a young couple. Through the exposure of social and psychological
complexity with the help of such symbolism like a football match, a track
race and a boxing contest etc. She mirrrored the ruthless struggle for
survival in large
like Wang Meng, zhang Xinxin and others, who have used new techniques and
innovations of the modernist school, have actually managed to open a new
vista in Chinese realist tradition because their borrowing from modernism
has been used as means to depict the complex reality of present-day China
with deeper insight. Moreover, such techniques have helped to produce
literary works that are sociological commentaries of fast-changing China.
This category more or less conforms to the Modernist school. Apart from
using modernist techniques and methods, they also reflect abnormal
relationships between men and women, the individual and society material
environment and nature, and distorted psychology, pessimism and nihilism
caused by such relationships - the concerns which are generally associated
with Western Modernist literature. Pioneers in this category are Can Xue,
MoYan, Liu Suola, Xu Xttg and Han Shaogang. Most of these writers are
pessimistic and disillusioned with the world they live and the writer’s
individual subjectivity or subjective impression of their surroundings are
represented in symbols and imagery.
works of Can Xue are remarkable in that the realistic conventions such as
characterisation, social setting and plot are not met. Can Xue’s images
are mostly linked with filth, death, destruction and darkness. For example
in her “Ah Mei in Pensive Mood on a sunny day” Ah Mei notices only pimples
and bad breaths of the people around her. The surrounding is depicted as
grimy, rickety and infested with worms. Can Xue not only shatters normal
human tenderness but also the illusions about many social institutions like
family and marriage. Her techniques and her vision of the world and society
are mutually suited in that the techniques (e.g., negative imagery and
symbols) are not displayed as mere tools, they complement and enhance the
depiction of her vision.
the other hand, in some works techniques and technical innovations are too
dominant. For example, in “You Have
No Choice”, the innovations are set-conscious and over-emphasised. As a
result, the pictures it projects of some alienated, confused youth sound
over-written and insincere. So much so that one Chinese literary critic has
to say the following about this work:
satirizes the atmosphere of campus life.... The whole conception is
disorderly with casual touches of colour, abrupt dialogue, hysterical
screams and such cynical ideas as dropout.... There is neither plot nor
typical characters nor events, only a recklessly presented, restless world.
The story betrays a marked influence, and one might even say is simply a
stylistic imitation, of the American black-humour writer Joseph Heller.”
Summing up the Chinese literary scene in the post-Mao period can conclude that in the first place, the New Literature is indicative of fundamental changes in the milieu from which it rises - both in terms of social reality and social consciousness that shape literature. Today problems of alienation crisis of faith, diminished human value as a result of authoritarian state and orthodox ideology, abuse of power and privilege, problems of social and human relations etc., are all acknowledged social reality. Acknowledged, because they have been publicly discussed at some point or the other and since they are acknowledged they are a part of social consciousness. Some of these problems did exist in the Mao era as well but were never tackled openly either in public discussion and debate or in literature. Secondly, since such social consciousness is being expressed in literature, it can be said, that social conscience is shaping contemporary literature. Literature, in turn, by raising these social issues, is trying to influence social reality from which it emerges - exposing the undesirable and unacceptable trends and calling for change, Thirdly, approach of writers, literary theoreticians and critics towards literature and literary criticism signifies a conscious revolt against old dogmas and Mao’s literary doctrines. Because, the people associated with literature are redefining the role of literature, yardsticks of literary criticism and literature itself. In other words, they are striving for true literature (in its variety and sincerity) in contrast with the false controlled literature of the past, which, if analyzed in the framework of Trotsky’s literary thought, was so tarnished (with exceptions of course) that it had ceased to be literature at all. This redefinition, in turn is giving rise to new aesthetic principles and taste. Fourthly efforts of this joint body of literary practitioners at redefining the various aspects of the literary process, are signification reformulating the relation between literature and politics. In post-Mao China, literature is not as subservient to politics as in the past, It can be tentatively said that now literature is serving the cause of society and country and people who compose of this society both individuals and as a collective. In this service to the people, literature is sometimes unbridled and definitely unconstrained by orthodox ideology and dogmatic politics. This may be the first hint of universal human culture to be created in distant future. Fifty, this New Literature, with unprecedented scope, is indicative of a comparatively strong-willed, independent body of writers, who are not so much controlled by official dictum in their creative undertaking, More and more writers today are venturing into areas that are still forbidden, This does not necessarily mean that they are opposed to socialism or want to overthrow socialism. On the contrary, the majority of such writers are stepping across the forbidden line either by being true to reality or by choosing themes that are frowned down upon, because they believe in Liu Binyan’s brand of the second kind of loyalty. By acting as the conscience of the system, they are trying to reform, repair and revitalize from within. In other words, rather than starting from political and ideological convictions which resulted in literature of the socialist realist kind, they are letting the mirror of literature truthfully reflect life and judge the shortcomings of the system.
proceedings of the Congress and speeches delivered, see Wenti Bao (Literary Gazette),
nos.ll-i&1979, pp. 8-26.
Yang, “Our Lessons and Tasks Ahead”, Beijing
Review, no. 50, 14 December 1979, p. 10. This article being the
excerpts of Zhou Yang’s speech to the Congress.
 The unofficial press published 84 individual issues of 27 titles of which some 12 titles were published regularly between November 1978 to 4 May 1979
for the first time in Today, no. 2, p. 6. However, the poem was
originally written around 1970/l, Translation taken from David S.G.
Goodman, Beijing Street Voices: The Poetry and politics of China’s
Democracy h4ovemenf, London, 1981, pp. 139
Published in Today, no. 1, p. 267. Translation as in David S.G. Goodman, op.
cit., p. 98.
in Harvest, no. 1, p. 267.
Translation as in David S.G. Goodman, op. cit.,
in Today, no. 3, p. 38. Translation as in David S.G. Goodman, op. cit.,
in Today, no. 3. p. 38. Translations as in William, Tay, “Obscure
Poetry”: A Controversy in Post-Mao Chine” in Jeffrey C. Kinkley (ed.), Affer Mao: Chinese Literature and Society, 1978-81, London,
1985, p. 136.
in Shi tansuo, 3:49 (1981).
Translation taken from Kinkley, op. cit.,
(1980). Translation taken from Kinkley, op. cit., p.136.
mentioned in Shikan, 10: 49-51
(MO), Gu Cheng’s father Gu Gong testified that Gu Cheng has not been
exposed to either Crescent School or Western modernism.
(1980). Translation as in Kinkley, op. cit.,
28 (1980). Translation taken from Kinkley, op. cit..
1, 1979. As cited in Kinkley, op. cit.,
19-20 (August 1981). As cited by Kinkley, op. cit, p. 142.
as in Kinkley, op. tit, p.143.
(1981) As cited by Kinkley, op. cit., p. 145.
12: 4 (1980). As cited in Jeffrey C. Kinkley (ed.). op.
cit., p. 146
 This article was published in Shikan, 3: 55-58 (1981).
in Shi tansuo, 1: 52 (1981).
Translation as cited in Kinkley, op. cit., p. 147.
Xinhua, “Shang hen”; Wenhui
bao 11, August 1978. It has been translated as the Wounded” in Lee
and Barme, The Wounded
(Hong Kong: Joint Publishing Co., 1979).
this work is one of the best example of ‘scar literature’, it was
published, much after the initial wave of ‘scar literature’ in 1980.
P. Siu, and Zelda, Stem, Mao’s
Harvest, Voices from China’s New Generation. New York, 1983, Introduction, p.
Yexin, Li Shoucheng and Yao Mingde, “Jiaru
Wo shi Zhende”, special issue of Xiju
yishu (Art of Drama) and Shanghai xiju
(Shanghai Drama) (Shanghai, 1979).
Jing, “Zai shehui de dang’an li”,
Dianying chuangmo (Film creation), no. 10, 1979, pp. 22-13
Hua and Peng Ning, “Kulian”, Shiyue
(October), no. 3,1979, pp . 140-71, 248.
& Engels, “On Literature and Art”, Progress Publishers, Moscow,
1978, p. 92.
Binyan. “Ren Yao Zhijian”,
Renmin wenxue (People’s
literature), no. 9, 1979, pp. 83-102.
talk by Hu Yaobang has been published in Wenyi
Bao, no. 1, 1981. pp.
Hua case has been discussed in detail in Richard Kraus, ‘Bai Hua: The
Political Authority of a Writer” in Carol Lee Hamrin and Timothy Cheek
(ed.), China’s Establishment
Intellectuals, M. E. Sharp, 1986. Also sea “Film and Politics: Bai
Hua’s Bitter Love”, in Jonathan D. Spence, Chinese Roundabout, W. W. Norton & Co. Inc. 1992.
Yang, “The Path of Our Country’s Socialist Literature and Art in
China”, Renmin Ribao, 4
September 1960. pp. 5-7. As cited in Merle Goldman, China’s
Intellectuals: Advise and Dissent, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press,
1981, p. 46.
Xintin, “Zai tong yi dipingxian”, Shouhuo
(Harvest), no. 6, 1981, pp. 172.233.
Xinxin, “Women zhege nianji de meng”. Shouhuo,
no. 4, 1982, pp. 95-120.
Ruoshui’s speech, 15 August 1979, published in his collected essays,
“Wei rendaozhuyi bianhu” (In defense of humanism), Beijing, 1986, p.
16. As cited in Lowell Dittmer and Samuel S. Kim (ad.), China’s Quest
for National Identify, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1993, p. 139.
p. 13. As cited in Dittmer and Kim, op. cit.,
n. 36, p. 139.
Xianliang, “Nanren de yiban shi nuren” (The half of a man is woman),
Shouhuo, no. 5, 1985, pp.
Binyan, ‘Dierzhong zhongcheng” (The Second Loyalty), Kailuo (Explorer), March 1985.
Journals), 18 February 1985, in JPRS, no. 1 86-m, 15 January 1986, p. 36
Zaifu. “Lun wanxuede Zhutixing” (On Literature’s Subjectivity), Wenxue
Pingun (Literary Criticism), no. 6. 1985, pp. 1 l-26; no. 1, 1986,
Zaifu, “Lun renwude erchong xingge zuhe yuanli” (The Theory of
Composition of Forces in Dual Personality), Wenxua
Pinglun, no. 3. 1984, pp. 24-40, 141.
Elegy” was a six-part VI feature document first screened in 1987, and
again in summer 1988. Transcript of the narration is available in Cui,
Wenhua (Ed.), Heshang lun (On “River Elegy”), Beijing, 1988.
Weiming, “Intellectual Effervescence in China”, Dedalus, Vol. 121,
no. 2, Spring 1992, p. 262.
“Wusida shishifeifei” (The May Fourth Movement: Its Rights and
Wrongs As Commentators see), Wanbui Baa (Wenhui Daily) Shanghai, 28
March 1989, p. 4. As cited in Dittmer and Kim, op. cit.. p. 146.
Junjie, “A Preliminary Study of Literary Schools in the New Era”,
Chinese Literature, Winter
1988. p. 180
Meng, “Kite Streamers”, Beijing
Wenyi (Beijing Literature and Art), no. 5, 1980, p. 11. Translation
taken from Lee, Lao Oufan
Politics of Technique: Perspective of Literary Dissidence in
Contemporary Chinese Fiction” in Kinkley, op. cit., p. 167.
Meng, “An Open Letter on ‘Stream-of-consciousness’ (translated by Michael S. Duke), Modem Chinese Literature, Vol 1, no.1, September 1984, p. 28.
Junjie. op. cit., p, 185..
©1998 Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, New Delhi
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any manner without written permission of the publisher.
Published in 1998 by
Gyan Publishing House
5, Ansari Road, Darya Ganj,
New Delhi - 110 002.