In descriptive grammar the word
substantive denotes a class of words primarily noun as 'substances' i.e.
names of persons, places, things etc. Substantive verb on the other hand
can be defined as set of verbs that denotes an affirmation or existence
in opposite to negative verb that denotes negation. In Bengali as like
many other languages of the world there is a superfluity of substantive
verbs. In Bengali the three main substantive verbs are [hɔ/ ho] 'to be'
, [ach] 'is/are' and [thak] 'to remain'. Among these three verbs the
second one is a defective verb in Bengali. Because the verb root [ach]
is not conjugated in all tenses and moods. The verb [ach] has no future
form in Bengali and it is neither conjugated in imperative mood. The
scope of this paper is to show their use in syntactic level in Bengali
where these verbs does not always have the role of substantive verb
because of shift of semantic connotation.