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Man, according to Buddhist philosophy is a heap of five aggregates, namely, material (Rupa), feeling (Vedana), knowing (Sanna), mental disposition (Sankhara) and consciousness (Vinnama).  The last four are collectively called Mind.  Therefore, Man is nothing but the composition of mind and matter.  According to it, there is no existence of a permanent entity like atma (soul) in the personality of Man.

Mind and matter are ever-changing.  They are guided by the theory of universal flux.  They are neither permanent nor eternal.  They are rather impermanent and soul-less.  Therefore, any attachment due to ignorance brings suffering.  The impermanence, soullessness and suffering are the three fold nature of Reality.

Complete Liberation (Nibbana) from suffering is the state of complete detachment.  A man can attain liberation by practicing the tri-stepped middle path.  They are: Morality, Concentration (meditation) and Wisdom.  Morality curtails the physical and vocal misdeeds, whereas meditation controls the mental misdeeds and wisdom brings the understanding and attachment to worldly things are destroyed and a state of desirelessness  is achieved by Man.

According to the Buddhist Philosophy, a wise man practices friendliness, compassion and equanimity, which are collectively called sublime way of living.  The Buddhist approach recommends not only to develop the moral character of men but also to inculcate in them the eternal values of Indian culture.

By K.K. Pandey, Library Asst., IGNCA


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