THE AGAMIC TRADITION AND THE ARTS
Sensuous to Supersensuous
Terms of Indian Aesthetics
K. D. Tripathi
traditional Indian holistic and cosmocentric vision governs the entire
Indian view of arts and aesthetics. Therefore, an inquiry into the Indian
view of time, space, direction, universal, substance or elements, numbers,
relation and action etc., is an imperative for the clear understanding of
Indian arts and aesthetics, as is the inquiry into the nature of ¡tman. The concept, of mah¡bh£tas
may be taken to be the starting point for a better understanding of the
world of differentiation- the universe of name and form, reflected in all
the metaphysical question of going beyond the knot of the ego-sense in the
form of limited 'I' and 'mine', which has been the central problem in
almost all the schools of Vedic and non-Vedic philosophy, is also linked
with the Indian view of creative process and aesthetic experience.
Postulating the Being as pure unity and non-differentiation in order to
explain the profound correlation of objective and subjective aspects of
reality culminates in the aesthetic theory of unified experience of rasa.
system of correspondences between macrocosm and microcosm, linking the
gross and subtle, sense perception and human emotive states, paves the way
for such an aesthetic experience of unity.
The multiplicity of name and form and the imaginative participation with and celebration of colourl, sound, touch and smell does not simply stop there. It goes further to the unity of Being through the impersonalization of emotive states. It is a journey from sensuous to supersensuous for an aesthete and a reverse process from unity to multiplicity for an artist in the creative expression.
Vedic as well as Ëgamic traditions offer a firm background for such an
manifestation of the unmanifest is an act, in which the entire cosmos is
involved. "It is neither a merely divine affair, nor a purely human
endeavour, nor a blind cosmic process, it is human, divine and cosmic all
This reveals the inter-relation and the unity of the cosmos.
Vedic view of the human body and its senses, the microcosm, in its
relation to the parts of the universe, namely space, the elements, fire (agni),
light (sun), water, earth and moon, in short, the cosmos and the converse
process, where it is seen that
the fire becomes speech, entering the mouth; wind becomes breath, entering
the nostrils; the sun becomes sight, entering the eyes; the quarters
become hearing, entering the ears; the annual herbs and regents of the
sorest become hairs, entering the skin; the moon becomes mind, entering
the heart; death becomes vital air, going downward and entering the navel;
and the water becomes seed entering the organ of generation, have been
very elaborately dealt with by Dr Kapila Vatsyayan in her brilliant paper
entitled "Indian Arts: Background and Principles".
She has also examined the question of the relationship of parts to the
whole, of a multiple to the one, and of the finite to the infinite and the
question whether any of the parts can have an independent existence, and
she answered that they are all interdependent and their single sate they
are incapable of comprehending the whole. Man acquires special
significance not because he is best and conquers nature but because he is
one amongst the many with a capacity for consciousness and transcendence
of pure physicality through psychical discipline. He has been viewed as a
biological-psychical unity and finally, there is he who transcends both
the physical and psychical to achieve the state of ananda or bliss. Going
deeper into the imagery of the Vedic SaÆhit¡s
and Upa´iÀads, Dr Kapila Vatsyayan shows that "senses and sense
perception play an imporlant role, both in themselves and as vehicles of
communicating the ar£pu and parar£pa
(the formless and the form supreme)."
share this Vedic view of universe and man and emphasize the ¿akti
or kriy¡ aspect in order to explain the riddle more satisfactorily and in a more intelligible way. For example, the
primal creative act has been explained in the following words in
Non-dualistic Kashmir áaivism - "áiva intent on creativity in the
form of expansion by means of the energy of the great mantra of supreme primal word, viz., the perfect 'I' in union with
¿akti, in whom the urge of expansion is implicit, and in whom abounds
the bloom of compactness of their energy, becomes engaged in the act of
Par¡tr¢¿k¡ Vivara¸a offers
a deep insight into the process of aesthetic experience also: "Now
whatever enters the inner psychic apparatus or the outer senses of all
beings, that abides as sentient life-energy (cetana-r£pe¸a-pr¡¸¡tman¡)
in the middle channel, i.e., suÀumn¡
whose main characteristic is to enliven all the parts of the body. The
life energy is said to be ojas
(vital lustre) that is then diffused as enlivening factor in the form of
common seminal energy (v¢rya)
in all parts of the body. Then when an exciting visual or auditory
perception enters the percipient, then on account of exciting power, it
fans the flame of passion in the form of the seminal energy."
to Abhinavagupta, the celebrated author of
Par¡tr¢¿k¡ Vivarapa, "whatever is taken in, whether in the
form of food or perception (e.g., sound, visual awareness of form, savour,
contact etc.,) is converted first in the central channel in the form of ojas
(vibal cnrrgy); then this ojas
is converted into seminal energy (v¢rya)
which permeates the whole body. All reproductive and creative functions
are performed by this energy. Whether it is the enjoyment of good food,
beautiful scenery, sweet music, entrancing poem, the embrace of a dear
one, everywhere it is this energy that is at play. It is the
representative of the divine energy (khecar¢) on the physical plane. Even passion, anger, grief owe
their life to that divine energy."
that energy is used as a distinct form of mere physical, chemical,
biological or psychic energy then it is
khecar¢-vaiÀamya, the heterogeneity, the disparateness of khecar¢.
When everything is viewed and used as a form of divine energy then it is khecar¢-s¡mya,
the homogeneousness of khecar¢:
This khecar¢-s¡mya leads to
the Ëgames explain the process
of mundane as well as aesthetic and spiritual experience satisfactorily in
terms of ¿akti or potentiality
and creativity, being activity, may be explained in terms of Vedic yajµa
the one becomes many through the primordial act of sacrifice, the lost
unity may be regained through the same sacrificial act freeing the self
from the spatial and temporal limitations. This happens in the sphere of
aesthetic experience too. The sah¤daya
(aesthetc) of the traditional Indian art, literature and theatre attains
repose in his deeper self for a moment and experiences rasa after having transcended the duality of relationship spread
over the temporal and spatial differentiations.
experience drawn from the art-form emanating from the awareness of either
affirmation or negation of the specific relationship is somewhat
different. It is mainly in terms of 'understanding', although this way of
'understanding' of the life and the self may be distinguished from that
which is acquired through other means.
in which one has to transcend the temporal and spatial differentiation
manifested in the world of relationship offer a very different aesthetic
experience. Although in such art-forms too, the beginning is from
enunciation of the vibh¡va (the
causes or the determinants), anubh¡va
(the effects or the consequents) and the saµc¡ribh¡va
(relatively fleeting emotions) and
of course, the sth¡y¢bh¡va (lasting or permanent emotions), yet the point of
culmination is s¡dh¡ra¸¢-kara¸a
(universalization) in which these vibh¡va
etc., do not appear belonging to or not belonging to the aesthete or
belonging to or not belonging to others (either an enemy or someone quite
indifferent). For there is neither affirmation nor negation of the
specific relationship at that stage.
point may be a little elaborated. In our ordinary mundane life, emotions
and feelings are evoked by someone and by the accompanying situations.
Such evocatives (particular-person-a¿raya
or the substratum of emotion and the surrounding situations the
stimuli) are taken to be 'causes' to the given emotions (bh¡vas).
Emotions, feelings and dispositions are, again, sometimes permanent
such as love and anger etc., and sometimes relatively fleeting emotions
such as blushfulness and envy etc. It is difficult to determine which one
is permanent and which one is fleeting. Therefore, Rharata's verdict has
been taken to be final in such matters by the tradition. The permanent
emotions are called sthayibhavas and the fleeting emotions are named as sancaribhavas.
The sth¡y¢bh¡vas are only eight or nine, while saµc¡r¢bh¡vas are thirty-three in number. The bh¡vas are known to others through the gesture, language and facial
expressions etc., which are the 'effects' of the emotions.
when depicted in, for instance, a play the 'cause' is known as vibh¡va.
The substratum of emotion is called ¡lambana-vibh¡va
and the stimulating surroundings etc., as
udd¢pana-vibh¡va. The effect such as gesture, facial expressions
etc., as anubh¡va. In our life
a dominant emotion is, ordinarily, mingled with various fleeting emotions.
A pervasive portrayal of life can never have only one sentiment. It will
be always an interweaving of one dominant emotion and various fleeting
emotions. Even where there is the portrayal of a narrower aspect of life
and there is the depiction of only one dominant or fleeting emotion
explicitly, other relevant accompanying emotions may be implicitly
present. Therefore an artistic portrayal of life is a depiction of vibh¡vas,
anubh¡vas, saµc¡r¢bh¡vas and saµc¡r¢bh¡vas,
but it always culminates into the absolute unity, which is rasa.
means of attaining this unity is s¡dh¡ra¸¢-kara¸a
or universalization of vibh¡va etc.,
leading to transcending the specificity of relationship. This is the
reason why it paves the way to transcending time and space and thereby
merging into one's own deeper self which is 'consciousness' (cit)
and 'bliss' (¡nanda). This is
fact of unity between sensuous and supersensuous is further demonstrated
by the profuse employment of the terminology with the connotation of
elements to designate the supersensuous aesthetic experience of unity.
proper to the sense of taste and related to the element ¡paÅ (water), almost devoid of noetic representation, has been
taken to designate the aesthetic experience or rasa. N¡¶ya-á¡stra of Bharata enunciates the aesthetic concept of
rasa in the context of n¡¶ya,
the highest form of art, which appeals to sight and hearing
simultaneously. The senses of sight and hearing only are capable of rising
above the boundaries of the limited 'I' according to some thinkers. In
drama, sight and hearing both collaborate in rousing in the spectator,
more easily and forcibly than the other forms, a unique state of
consciousness conceived intuitively as a quintessence, juice or flavour,
The total nature of the aesthetic experience, though supersensuous,
includes psychic and sensuous things as its subordinated parts and has its
effects felt on the body as well. It is remarkable that the pervasive as
well as the uintessential
nature of this aesthetic experience is designated by the term rasa,
which reminds of its cosmic and spiritual connotations in Vedic cosmogony
and metaphysics. For the enjoyment aspect
of this experience, the terms employed are ¡sv¡da,
rasan¡ and carva¸¡ and they are equally rooted in the sensation proper to
sense of taste related to ¡paÅ (water).
substance of drama and poetry is rasa,
which is qualified by gu¸a. As the quality always inheres in a substance
and the two can never be separated, rasa
always appears qualified by some gu¸a.
Gu¸a is thus the
transformation of mind (citta) in
the process of aesthetic sublimation culminating into repose in the Self;
This transformation means, at the first place, purification and clarity of
mind and relates to the lucidity in sound and sense also. It is a quality
common to all sentiments and all kinds of compositions. Hence this quality
has been understood primarily relating to the suggested sense only.
the feeling depicted is delicate, love or sorrow, for example, the words
and the sense delineating poetic passion are equally soft and
heart-melting. When the feeling concerned is fierce, harsh like anger or
courage, the expression also becomes likewise fiery. The quality of
delicacy is called m¡dhurya and
that of fieriness ojas. But both
are only different expressions of gradual freedom from the finiteness of
the self. This disappearance of the limitation paves the way for an
experience of the totality and unity, which is rasa.
The basic emotive states merely colour this experience of unity. Pa¸·itar¡ja
Jagann¡tha defines this state of
rasa experience as accepted by Abhinavagupta and Mamma¶a etc.
concept of gu¸a as explained
by, Ënandavardhana and Abhinavagupta and
accepted by the later critics like Mamma¶a is really the concept of
purification of mind in the aesthetic experience according to some modern
scholars of Sanskrit poetics. This concept of purification has been
distinguished from the rasa itself as effect from the cause. Dr Shri
Krishna Mishra observes: "Indian critics very clearly distinguish
every stage of the poetic process or experience. Thus they clearly point
out that rasa is a stage of poetic experience higher than that of
gu¸a. And even in rasa-experience, the experience of primary ¿¡ntrasa is the apex. Again, just as they measure these
immeasurable heights so finely, they best explain the descent of the
divine Muse in the tangible form of words and meaning. Gu¸a is the connecting link between the spiritual intuition ( rasa)
and the material conception (r¢ti) in the poet's experience and between dhvani
and alaÆk¡ra in the poet's expression."
it is clear that the terms pras¡da,
ojas and m¡dhurya related
to ¡k¡¿a tejas and ¡paÅ respectively, designate nott only the different modes of
beauty at the sensous level, but the one at the intermediary level between
sensuous and supersensuous also.
and similar spatial terms have
been employed symbolically in spiritually or esoterically oriented
context. Dr Javier Ugaz Ortitz in his paper entitled: "The spatial
vocabulary of the interior experiences in Indian esoterism" has
demonstrated it in an elaborate manner. Likewise in the aesthetic
terminology of rasa-experience also, a core term h¤daya is deeply related to ¡k¡¿a
.Abhinava's concept of h¤daya
(heart) is that of microscopic inner sky which has been defined in the
Aspirants who have reached the stage, that in which the entire universe
shines, that which (by itself) shines everywhere, that sparkling light
(which is both prak¡¿a and vimar¿asphuratt¡) alone is the highest reality.
is one who is endowed with this h¤day¡k¡¿a,
the inner central space of consciousness, which is at the same time
'Sparkling Light,' or sphuratt¡. Space
is seen as light, and light endowed with vibration - initial, e.g.,
vimar¿a-sphuratt¡. Here it is again a case of deriving the term from
'spatial' terminology for a very deep spiritual as well as aesthetic
the 'spatial' terms have been employed to express religious and aesthetic
experience, so the terms pertaining to sound such as n¡da and dhvani have been
taken to designate spiritual as well as aesthetic states.
theory of dhvani is a landmark
in the history of Sanskrit poetics. Ënandavardhana, and Abhinavagupta
expressly refer to their debts to gram-marians. Anandavardhana, states:
"This designation (dhvani)
was first devised by the learned and that it has gained currency in a
haphazard fashion. The foremost among the learned are grammarians because
grammar lies at the root of all studies. They indeed, refer to articulate
letters by term dhvani or suggester. In the same way, since the element of
suggestion is common (to both) not only the word and its meaning but its
essential verbal power and also that which is usually referred to by the
term poetry has been given the same designation, viz., dhvani
by the other learned men whose insight into the fundamental truth about
poetry was profound and who were followers of the principles laid down by
grammarians." (K. Krishnamurty (tr.), Dhavany¡loka,
specially refers to Bhart¤hari and maintains that the word dhavni
has four meanings according to various ways of grammatical formation. They
are the suggestive word, suggestive meaning, the power of suggestion, and
the suggested meaning. The poem with such words and meaning is also called
dhvani. Mamma¶a also maintains
that the grammarias employed the term dhvani
as the suggester of spho¶a and
their followers (dhvaniv¡dins),
then employed the term for both - the word and meaning capabe of
suggestion by subordinating the literal meaning (v¡cya)." 
is ultimate unity of word and meaning. Differentiation or word and meaning
becomes explicit at the stage of
madhyam¡ v¡k. But even at this stage word and meaning are inner
realities. V¡k as consciousness is the paramaÆ
jyotis (Supreme Light) and akrama
(above temporal sequentially). Audible externa l speech in time,
therefoore, manifested in temporal sequentality. The audible external word
reveals the inner word (madhyam¡ n¡d¡tmaka
¡ntara spho¶a). Spho¶a is
vya´gya (revealed) and the audible var¸a (letter) is the vyaµjaka.
Var¸a as dhvani (external sound) reveals spho¶a,
the inner word. This dhvani has another quality of resonance. It reaches
our ears through resonance. The power of revealing or suggesting things on
the one hand and the process of resonance on the other offer a sound
foundation of the aesthetics of suggestion. The process of resonance as it
is seen in the case of sound, may be equally seen in the echo of other
levels of meaning. This dhvanana
or anusv¡ra or anura¸ana is
basically a quality of sound, but it has been further expanded to explain
the nature of aesthetic experience. In terms of manifesting the unmanifest,
it is called vyaµjana or
suggestion. AnuÀv¡na or anura¸ana,
i.e., resonance further elaborate the process. As the sound and words
go on producing another sound and word and sound-waves and the word-waves
gradually reach our ears, so the v¡caka,
v¡cya etc., go on manifesting other levels of meaning. Beauty
consists in the process of resonance on the one hand and suggestion or
revelation of the unmanifest on the other.
and the experience of beauty, as dhvani
is, thus, deeply rooted in the concepts of v¡k,
n¡da and ¿abda.
term c¡matk¡ra designates
flash and wonder of aesthetic delight, which comprehends all poetic
elements from gu¸a and ¿abd¡laÆk¡ra to rasa and
dhvani. According to Dr Raghavan
the concept of camatk¡ra came
into AlaÆk¡ra-á¡stra from
the P¡ka-á¡stra. Its early
history is indistinct and dictionaries record only the later meanings, the
chief of which are 'astonishment' and poetic relish. According to Dr
Raghavan originally the word was as onomatopoeic word referring to the
clicking sound we make witch our tongue when we taste something snappy,
and in course of its semantic enlargements, camatk¡ra
came to mean sudden fillip relating to any feeling of pleasurable
"N¡r¡ya¸a, an ancestor of the author of the S¡hitya-Darpa¸a: interpreted camatk¡ra
as an expansion of the heart, citta
vist¡ra and held all kinds of rasa-realization
to be of the nature of this camatk¡ra
or citta-vist¡ra, of which the
best example was adbhuta rasa"-
informs Dr Raghavan. But camtk¡ra
occurs in Dhvany¡loka and Locana as all-comprehensive
for literary relish according to
Dr Raghavan. Agni Pur¡na, kavi, Ka¸thara¸a
and S¡hityam¢m¡Æs¡ also refer to this term. Vi¿ve¿vara in his Camatk¡ra-Candrik¡
maintains that camatk¡ra is
sah¤daya's delight on reading a poem and gu¸a, r¢ti, v¢tti, p¡ka, ¿ayy¡, alamk¡ra and rasa are seven ¡lambanas
in a poem. Hari Prasad, the author of K¡vyaloka
calls camatk¤ti the soul of
Gnoli maintains that probably Utpaladeva was the first, in the Kashmir
Saivite tradition to use this term in a technical sense.
It is a fond term of Abhinavagupta in his Ëgamic works. The term citta-camatk¡ra
has been translated as 'self flashing of light' by Dr Dasgupta refers
Dr Dasgupta appears to be correct in taking camatk¡ra
in the sense of 'flash'. This meaning is preserved in Pr¡k¤ta camakkai for camatkaroti.
Hindi also preserves this meaning. The sudden flash of lightning etc.,
causes wonder and it appears to be quite natural that the sense of
'wonder' and 'relish are an addition to the original meaning of 'flash'.
it is apparent that aesthetic delight designated by camatka does have the connotation of 'flash and 'light'. Pratibh¡
is another such term with the connotation of 'light and 'flash'.
may be noticed that the three terms rasa,
dhvani and camatk¡ra designating
the supersensuous and the core aesthetic experience have been evolved with
the background of the elements ¡paÅ,
¡k¡¿a and tejas
respectively, but there is no such term with the background of the
remaining two elements to.designate the core experience. However, there
are such terms either for defining the intermediary process of
rasa experience or to designate the very general aspect of beauty. For
is made to derive from bh£-
intended in two different meanings, that is 'to cause to be' (viz., to
bring about, to create, etc.,) and 'to pervade'. Here bh¡vitam
has been explained as v¡sitam
(pervaded) and according to this
meaning bh¡vas are so-called
because they pervade, as a smell, the minds of spectators of drama. Here bh¡van¡
or v¡san¡ has a clear connotation of smell, which is a quality of
earth. This inlermediary act of pervading of mind by bh¡va has been designated by a term with the background of the
employed for beauty 
have the background of different elements from the very beginning. For
example, the terms ár¢, madhu, and
supe¿as have the background of tejas,
¡paÅ (water) and r£pa. The
adjectives such as vibh¡var¢, ¿ukra,
and ¿ociÅ have the background
of tejas. S£nar¢ has been linked with the later word sundara by Peterson. If it is correct, then sunara may also be
linked with apah, for word for the etymology of sundnra appears to be suÀ¶hu
undaÆ kledanaÆ r¡ti-that which brings about melting.
l¡vanya too, are very apparently linked with
¡paÅ, ¿obh¡, k¡nti are
associated with tejas.
is a term so common for beautiful. Etymologically it appears to be derived
from car- to move. Thus c¡ru is
that which moves, which vibrates in the heart. Movement and vibration are
the qualities of v¡yu (wind).
Thus it may be concluded that as there is a correspondence between macrocosm and microcosmic body, external and internal sense-organs; vital air and speech, there is a correspondence between sensuous and aesthetic as well as religious spiritual experience. Beauty is the experience of unity of the sensuous and supersensuous. It is an experience of totality. This experience has also been designated by terms with the elemental background.
Ënandavardhana hinted at the rasa experience of the poet artist in
the process of creative expression and Abhinava elaborated the point
in his Locana.
sa ev¡rthastath¡ c¡dikaveÅ pur¡ I
¿okaÅ ¿lokatvam¡gataÅ II
tu muneÅ ¿oka iti mantavyam I evaÆ sati taddu&Åkhena so'pi duÅkhita
k¤tv¡ ras¡tmateti niravak¡¿aÆ bhavet I na ca ¿okasantaptasya eÀ¡
eva k¡vyasy¡tm¡ s¡rabh£tasvabh¡vo' para¿abdavailakÀa¸yak¡rakaÅ
Locana, Dhvany¡loka, I uddyota, p. 160
The Vedic Experience ,R.Panikkar, p. 73,M.L.B.D.Delhi, 1983.
Indian Arts: Backgrouns and Principles" Kapila Vatsyayan in R£pa-Pratir£pa,
Ed. by Bettina Baumer, p.16, Biblia Impex Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi,1982
 Ibid., p. 13
hi parav¡´mayamah¡mantrav¢ryavis¤À¶imayaÅ parame¿var¢vis¤À¶y¡
v¢ryaghanat¡tmakapras£nanirbharay¡ s¤À¶y¡ yujyate I Par¡tr¢¿ik¡
p. 15, Dr Jaideva Singh, Ed. by Bettina B¡umer, p. 42, M.L.B.D.
yujyate satataÆ s¤À¶y¡ sv¢ya¿aktivis¤À¶ay¡ I
(Rameshvar Jha, Pur¸at¡pratyabhijµ¡, 17. 18 p. 6, R.V.
Joshi & Brothers, Varanasi,
tath¡ hi sarveÀ¡mantarbahiÀkara¸¡n¡Æ yat yat anupravi¿ati
madhyan¡·¢bhuvi sarv¡´g¡nup¡¸as¡r¡y¡Æ pr¡¸¡tman¡
cetanar£pe¸a ¡ste-oja iti
I tadeva sarv¡´geÀu anupr¡¸akatay¡ tadavibhaktav¢ryar£patvena
tato'pi punarapi nayana¿rava¸¡deva¸¡d¢ndriyadv¡re¸a b¤´hakar£paÆ
r£pa¿abd¡di anupr¡vi¿at b¤´hakatv¡deva tatv¢ryakÀobhar£pak¡m¡nalaprabodhakaÆ
 . The Aesthetic Experience According to Abhinavagupta, Introduction, p.xiv, R. Gnoli, III Edition, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, Vaanasi, 1985
yaiteÀ¡Æ sapt¡n¡Æ puruÀ¡¸¡Æ ¿r¢Å yo rasa ¡sit tam£rdhvaÆ
¿iro'bhavat I yacchriyaÆ samusauhan stasm¡cchiraÅ I tasminnetasmin-
a¿rayanta I tasm¡dvevaitaxxhiraÅ I atha yatpr¡¸¡ a¿rayanta tasm¡du
pr¡¸¡Å ¿riyaÅ ¿riyaÅ I atha yatsarvasminna¿rayanta
tasm¡du ¿ar¢ram II"
ya¿crite'gnirnidhiyate-yaivaiteÀ¡Æ sapt¡n¡Æ puruÀ¡¸¡Æ ¿r¢Å,
samud£hanti tadasy¡itacchiraÅ-tasminnetasmintsarve dev¡Å
I atra hi sarvebhyo devebhyo juhvati Itasm¡dvevaitacchiraÅ II"
idamagra ¡s¢t Itato vai sadaj¡yata I tad¡tm¡naÆ svayamakur£ta
iti I yadvai tatsuk¤tam I raso vai saÅ I rasaÆ hyev¡yaÆ
bhavati I ko hyev¡ny¡ti kaÅ p¡¸y¡t I yadeÀa ¡k¡¿a ¡nando na
I eÀa hyev¡nanday¡ti I yad¡ hyevaiÀa etasminnad¤¿ye' n¡tmye'
vindate I atha so'bhavati I yad¡hyrvaiÀa estasminnudaramantaraÆ
I kurute I atha tasya bhayaÆ bhavati I yad¡ hyevaiÀo'manv¡nasya I
¿loka bhavati II
II.10, V¤tti and Locana, pp. 212-13, Ed.
by Pattabhirama Shastri,
Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series, Varanasi-Vikrama Samvat,1997.
Ed by Durga Prasad, Editon IV,K¡vyam¡l¡, 12,
Coleridge and Abhinavagipta,
Shri Krishna, p. 545, Mirzapur, Darbhanga, 1979.
bh¡ti yacca sarvatra bh¡sate I
sphurattaiva hi s¡ hyek¡ h¤dayaÆ paramaÆ budh¡Å II
( par¡tr¢¿ik¡ Vivara¸a, Text,
nyagrodhab¢jasthaÅ jagadetaccar¡caram II
iha asat na t¡vat kiµcit ityuktam I vi¿v¡tmakamiti I tat¿ca
tatsamucitenaiva vapuÀ¡ a´kuravi¶apapatraphal¡ni tiÀ¶anti,
( Ibid., Text, pp. 92-93.) ( Tr. by Dr Jaideva Singh, Par¡tr¢¿ik¡, p. 260).
Ed. by Pattalakikara, p. 19, Pune, 1950
 .Locana, Dhvany¡loka Ed. by Pattattabhirama Shastri, pp. 340-41.
in some concepts of Abhinavagupta,
 Aesthetic Eeperience According to Abhinavagupta, Introduction, pp. xlv-vi
Ibid., p. xlvi
iti (¸yantaÅ) kara¸e dh¡vitaÆ v¡sitaÆ k¤tam ityanarth¡ntaram
N¡¶ya¿¡stra, Vol. I, Forth revised edition, Ed. by Dr
Institute, Vadodara, 1992,p. 338.
Ingalls, "Words for Beauty, in Classical Sanskrit Poetry" ,
Norman Brown Felicitation Volume, pp. 87-107.
©1995 Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, New Delhi