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From Sensuous to Supersensuous  

Some Terms of Indian Aesthetics

K. D. Tripathi


The traditional Indian holistic and cosmocentric vision governs the entire Indian view of arts and aesthetics. Therefore, an inquiry into the Indian view of time, space, direction, universal, substance or elements, numbers, relation and action etc., is an imperative for the clear understanding of Indian arts and aesthetics, as is the inquiry into the nature of ¡tman. The concept, of mah¡bh£tas may be taken to be the starting point for a better understanding of the world of differentiation- the universe of name and form, reflected in all art-forms.

But the metaphysical question of going beyond the knot of the ego-sense in the form of limited 'I' and 'mine', which has been the central problem in almost all the schools of Vedic and non-Vedic philosophy, is also linked with the Indian view of creative process and aesthetic experience. Postulating the Being as pure unity and non-differentiation in order to explain the profound correlation of objective and subjective aspects of reality culminates in the aesthetic theory of unified experience of rasa.

The system of correspondences between macrocosm and microcosm, linking the gross and subtle, sense perception and human emotive states, paves the way for such an aesthetic experience of unity.

The multiplicity of name and form and the imaginative participation with and celebration of colourl, sound, touch and smell does not simply stop there. It goes further to the unity of Being through the impersonalization of emotive states. It is a journey from sensuous to supersensuous for an aesthete and a reverse process from unity to multiplicity for an artist in the creative expression.[1]

The Vedic as well as Ëgamic traditions offer a firm background for such an aesthetic theory.

The manifestation of the unmanifest is an act, in which the entire cosmos is involved. "It is neither a merely divine affair, nor a purely human endeavour, nor a blind cosmic process, it is human, divine and cosmic all in one."[2] This reveals the inter-relation and the unity of the cosmos.

The Vedic view of the human body and its senses, the microcosm, in its relation to the parts of the universe, namely space, the elements, fire (agni), light (sun), water, earth and moon, in short, the cosmos and the converse process, where it is seen that the fire becomes speech, entering the mouth; wind becomes breath, entering the nostrils; the sun becomes sight, entering the eyes; the quarters become hearing, entering the ears; the annual herbs and regents of the sorest become hairs, entering the skin; the moon becomes mind, entering the heart; death becomes vital air, going downward and entering the navel; and the water becomes seed entering the organ of generation, have been very elaborately dealt with by Dr Kapila Vatsyayan in her brilliant paper entitled "Indian Arts: Background and Principles".[3] She has also examined the question of the relationship of parts to the whole, of a multiple to the one, and of the finite to the infinite and the question whether any of the parts can have an independent existence, and she answered that they are all interdependent and their single sate they are incapable of comprehending the whole. Man acquires special significance not because he is best and conquers nature but because he is one amongst the many with a capacity for consciousness and transcendence of pure physicality through psychical discipline. He has been viewed as a biological-psychical unity and finally, there is he who transcends both the physical and psychical to achieve the state of ananda or bliss. Going deeper into the imagery of the Vedic SaÆhit¡s and Upa´iÀads, Dr Kapila Vatsyayan shows that "senses and sense perception play an imporlant role, both in themselves and as vehicles of communicating the ar£pu and parar£pa (the formless and the form supreme)."[4]

Ëgamas also share this Vedic view of universe and man and emphasize the ¿akti or kriy¡ aspect in order to explain the riddle more satisfactorily and in a more intelligible way. For example, the primal creative act has been explained in the following words in Non-dualistic Kashmir áaivism - "áiva intent on creativity in the form of expansion by means of the energy of the great mantra of supreme primal word, viz., the perfect 'I' in union with ¿akti, in whom the urge of expansion is implicit, and in whom abounds the bloom of compactness of their energy, becomes engaged in the act of creative expansion."[5]

Abhinavagupta's Par¡tr¢¿k¡ Vivara¸a offers a deep insight into the process of aesthetic experience also: "Now whatever enters the inner psychic apparatus or the outer senses of all beings, that abides as sentient life-energy (cetana-r£pe¸a-pr¡¸¡tman¡) in the middle channel, i.e., suÀumn¡ whose main characteristic is to enliven all the parts of the body. The life energy is said to be ojas (vital lustre) that is then diffused as enlivening factor in the form of common seminal energy (v¢rya) in all parts of the body. Then when an exciting visual or auditory perception enters the percipient, then on account of exciting power, it fans the flame of passion in the form of the seminal energy."[6]

According to Abhinavagupta, the celebrated author of Par¡tr¢¿k¡ Vivarapa, "whatever is taken in, whether in the form of food or perception (e.g., sound, visual awareness of form, savour, contact etc.,) is converted first in the central channel in the form of ojas (vibal cnrrgy); then this ojas is converted into seminal energy (v¢rya) which permeates the whole body. All reproductive and creative functions are performed by this energy. Whether it is the enjoyment of good food, beautiful scenery, sweet music, entrancing poem, the embrace of a dear one, everywhere it is this energy that is at play. It is the representative of the divine energy (khecar¢) on the physical plane. Even passion, anger, grief owe their life to that divine energy."[7]

When that energy is used as a distinct form of mere physical, chemical, biological or psychic energy then it is khecar¢-vaiÀamya, the heterogeneity, the disparateness of khecar¢. When everything is viewed and used as a form of divine energy then it is khecar¢-s¡mya, the homogeneousness of khecar¢: This khecar¢-s¡mya leads to liberation.[8]

Thus the Ëgames explain the process of mundane as well as aesthetic and spiritual experience satisfactorily in terms of ¿akti or potentiality and energy.

Creation and creativity, being activity, may be explained in terms of Vedic yajµa (sacrifice) also.

As the one becomes many through the primordial act of sacrifice, the lost unity may be regained through the same sacrificial act freeing the self from the spatial and temporal limitations. This happens in the sphere of aesthetic experience too. The sah¤daya (aesthetc) of the traditional Indian art, literature and theatre attains repose in his deeper self for a moment and experiences rasa after having transcended the duality of relationship spread over the temporal and spatial differentiations.

The experience drawn from the art-form emanating from the awareness of either affirmation or negation of the specific relationship is somewhat different. It is mainly in terms of 'understanding', although this way of 'understanding' of the life and the self may be distinguished from that which is acquired through other means.

Art-forms in which one has to transcend the temporal and spatial differentiation manifested in the world of relationship offer a very different aesthetic experience. Although in such art-forms too, the beginning is from enunciation of the vibh¡va (the causes or the determinants), anubh¡va (the effects or the consequents) and the saµc¡ribh¡va (relatively fleeting emotions) and of course, the sth¡y¢bh¡va (lasting or permanent emotions), yet the point of culmination is s¡dh¡ra¸¢-kara¸a (universalization) in which these vibh¡va etc., do not appear belonging to or not belonging to the aesthete or belonging to or not belonging to others (either an enemy or someone quite indifferent). For there is neither affirmation nor negation of the specific relationship at that stage.

This point may be a little elaborated. In our ordinary mundane life, emotions and feelings are evoked by someone and by the accompanying situations. Such evocatives (particular-person-a¿raya or the substratum of emotion and the surrounding situations the stimuli) are taken to be 'causes' to the given emotions (bh¡vas). Emotions, feelings and dispositions are, again, sometimes permanent such as love and anger etc., and sometimes relatively fleeting emotions such as blushfulness and envy etc. It is difficult to determine which one is permanent and which one is fleeting. Therefore, Rharata's verdict has been taken to be final in such matters by the tradition. The permanent emotions are called sthayibhavas and the fleeting emotions are named as sancaribhavas. The sth¡y¢bh¡vas are only eight or nine, while saµc¡r¢bh¡vas are thirty-three in number. The bh¡vas are known to others through the gesture, language and facial expressions etc., which are the 'effects' of the emotions.

Now when depicted in, for instance, a play the 'cause' is known as vibh¡va. The substratum of emotion is called ¡lambana-vibh¡va and the stimulating surroundings etc., as udd¢pana-vibh¡va. The effect such as gesture, facial expressions etc., as anubh¡va. In our life a dominant emotion is, ordinarily, mingled with various fleeting emotions. A pervasive portrayal of life can never have only one sentiment. It will be always an interweaving of one dominant emotion and various fleeting emotions. Even where there is the portrayal of a narrower aspect of life and there is the depiction of only one dominant or fleeting emotion explicitly, other relevant accompanying emotions may be implicitly present. Therefore an artistic portrayal of life is a depiction of vibh¡vas, anubh¡vas, saµc¡r¢bh¡vas and saµc¡r¢bh¡vas, but it always culminates into the absolute unity, which is rasa.

The means of attaining this unity is s¡dh¡ra¸¢-kara¸a or universalization of vibh¡va etc., leading to transcending the specificity of relationship. This is the reason why it paves the way to transcending time and space and thereby merging into one's own deeper self which is 'consciousness' (cit) and 'bliss' (¡nanda). This is rasa.

The fact of unity between sensuous and supersensuous is further demonstrated by the profuse employment of the terminology with the connotation of elements to designate the supersensuous aesthetic experience of unity.

Sensation proper to the sense of taste and related to the element ¡paÅ (water), almost devoid of noetic representation, has been taken to designate the aesthetic experience or rasa. N¡¶ya-á¡stra of Bharata enunciates the aesthetic concept of rasa in the context of n¡¶ya, the highest form of art, which appeals to sight and hearing simultaneously. The senses of sight and hearing only are capable of rising above the boundaries of the limited 'I' according to some thinkers. In drama, sight and hearing both collaborate in rousing in the spectator, more easily and forcibly than the other forms, a unique state of consciousness conceived intuitively as a quintessence, juice or flavour, called rasa.[9] The total nature of the aesthetic experience, though supersensuous, includes psychic and sensuous things as its subordinated parts and has its effects felt on the body as well. It is remarkable that the pervasive as well as the  uintessential nature of this aesthetic experience is designated by the term rasa, which reminds of its cosmic and spiritual connotations in Vedic cosmogony and metaphysics.[10] For the enjoyment aspect of this experience, the terms employed are ¡sv¡da, rasan¡ and carva¸¡ and they are equally rooted in the sensation proper to sense of taste related to ¡paÅ (water).

The substance of drama and poetry is rasa, which is qualified by gu¸a. As the quality always inheres in a substance and the two can never be separated, rasa always appears qualified by some gu¸a.  Gu¸a  is thus the transformation of mind (citta) in the process of aesthetic sublimation culminating into repose in the Self; This transformation means, at the first place, purification and clarity of mind and relates to the lucidity in sound and sense also. It is a quality common to all sentiments and all kinds of compositions. Hence this quality has been understood primarily relating to the suggested sense only.[11]

When the feeling depicted is delicate, love or sorrow, for example, the words and the sense delineating poetic passion are equally soft and heart-melting. When the feeling concerned is fierce, harsh like anger or courage, the expression also becomes likewise fiery. The quality of delicacy is called m¡dhurya and that of fieriness ojas. But both are only different expressions of gradual freedom from the finiteness of the self. This disappearance of the limitation paves the way for an experience of the totality and unity, which is rasa. The basic emotive states merely colour this experience of unity. Pa¸·itar¡ja Jagann¡tha defines this state of rasa experience as accepted by Abhinavagupta and Mamma¶a etc.

bhagn¡vara¸a-cidvi¿iÀ¶aÅ sth¡y¢ [12]

This aesthetic experience is analogous to highest spiritual experience - brahm¡sv¡da.

The concept of gu¸a as explained by, Ënandavardhana and Abhinavagupta and accepted by the later critics like Mamma¶a is really the concept of purification of mind in the aesthetic experience according to some modern scholars of Sanskrit poetics. This concept of purification has been distinguished from the rasa itself as effect from the cause. Dr Shri Krishna Mishra observes: "Indian critics very clearly distinguish every stage of the poetic process or experience. Thus they clearly point out that rasa is a stage of poetic experience higher than that of gu¸a. And even in rasa-experience, the experience of primary ¿¡ntrasa is the apex. Again, just as they measure these immeasurable heights so finely, they best explain the descent of the divine Muse in the tangible form of words and meaning. Gu¸a is the connecting link between the spiritual intuition ( rasa) and the material conception (r¢ti) in the poet's experience and between dhvani and alaÆk¡ra in the poet's expression."[13]

Thus it is clear that the terms pras¡da, ojas and m¡dhurya related to ¡k¡¿a tejas and ¡paÅ respectively, designate nott only the different modes of beauty at the sensous level, but the one at the intermediary level between sensuous and supersensuous also.

Ëk¡¿a and similar spatial terms have been employed symbolically in spiritually or esoterically oriented context. Dr Javier Ugaz Ortitz in his paper entitled: "The spatial vocabulary of the interior experiences in Indian esoterism" has demonstrated it in an elaborate manner. Likewise in the aesthetic terminology of rasa-experience also, a core term h¤daya is deeply related to ¡k¡¿a .Abhinava's concept of h¤daya (heart) is that of microscopic inner sky which has been defined in the following words:

0 Aspirants who have reached the stage, that in which the entire universe shines, that which (by itself) shines everywhere, that sparkling light (which is both prak¡¿a and vimar¿asphuratt¡) alone is the highest reality.[14]

Sah¤daaya is one who is endowed with this h¤day¡k¡¿a, the inner central space of consciousness, which is at the same time 'Sparkling Light,' or sphuratt¡. Space is seen as light, and light endowed with vibration - initial, e.g., vimar¿a-sphuratt¡. Here it is again a case of deriving the term from 'spatial' terminology for a very deep spiritual as well as aesthetic experience.

As the 'spatial' terms have been employed to express religious and aesthetic experience, so the terms pertaining to sound such as n¡da and dhvani have been taken to designate spiritual as well as aesthetic states.

The theory of dhvani is a landmark in the history of Sanskrit poetics. Ënandavardhana, and Abhinavagupta expressly refer to their debts to gram-marians. Anandavardhana, states: "This designation (dhvani) was first devised by the learned and that it has gained currency in a haphazard fashion. The foremost among the learned are grammarians because grammar lies at the root of all studies. They indeed, refer to articulate letters by term dhvani or suggester. In the same way, since the element of suggestion is common (to both) not only the word and its meaning but its essential verbal power and also that which is usually referred to by the term poetry has been given the same designation, viz., dhvani by the other learned men whose insight into the fundamental truth about poetry was profound and who were followers of the principles laid down by grammarians." (K. Krishnamurty (tr.), Dhavany¡loka,  pp. 27-29)

Abhinava specially refers to Bhart¤hari and maintains that the word dhavni has four meanings according to various ways of grammatical formation. They are the suggestive word, suggestive meaning, the power of suggestion, and the suggested meaning. The poem with such words and meaning is also called dhvani. Mamma¶a also maintains that the grammarias employed the term dhvani as the suggester of spho¶a and their followers (dhvaniv¡dins), then employed the term for both - the word and meaning capabe of suggestion by subordinating the literal meaning (v¡cya)." [15]

There is ultimate unity of word and meaning. Differentiation or word and meaning becomes explicit at the stage of madhyam¡ v¡k. But even at this stage word and meaning are inner realities. V¡k as consciousness is the paramaÆ jyotis (Supreme Light) and akrama (above temporal sequentially). Audible externa l speech in time, therefoore, manifested in temporal sequentality. The audible external word reveals the inner word (madhyam¡ n¡d¡tmaka ¡ntara spho¶a). Spho¶a is vya´gya (revealed) and the audible var¸a (letter) is the vyaµjaka. Var¸a as dhvani (external sound) reveals spho¶a, the inner word. This dhvani has another quality of resonance. It reaches our ears through resonance. The power of revealing or suggesting things on the one hand and the process of resonance on the other offer a sound foundation of the aesthetics of suggestion. The process of resonance as it is seen in the case of sound, may be equally seen in the echo of other levels of meaning. This dhvanana or anusv¡ra or anura¸ana is basically a quality of sound, but it has been further expanded to explain the nature of aesthetic experience. In terms of manifesting the unmanifest, it is called vyaµjana or suggestion. AnuÀv¡na or anura¸ana, i.e., resonance further elaborate the process. As the sound and words go on producing another sound and word and sound-waves and the word-waves gradually reach our ears, so the v¡caka, v¡cya etc., go on manifesting other levels of meaning. Beauty consists in the process of resonance on the one hand and suggestion or revelation of the unmanifest on the other.[16]

Beauty and the experience of beauty, as dhvani is, thus, deeply rooted in the concepts of v¡k, n¡da and ¿abda.

The term c¡matk¡ra designates flash and wonder of aesthetic delight, which comprehends all poetic elements from gu¸a and ¿abd¡laÆk¡ra to rasa and dhvani. According to Dr Raghavan the concept of camatk¡ra came into AlaÆk¡ra-á¡stra from the P¡ka-á¡stra. Its early history is indistinct and dictionaries record only the later meanings, the chief of which are 'astonishment' and poetic relish. According to Dr Raghavan originally the word was as onomatopoeic word referring to the clicking sound we make witch our tongue when we taste something snappy, and in course of its semantic enlargements, camatk¡ra came to mean sudden fillip relating to any feeling of pleasurable type.[17] "N¡r¡ya¸a, an ancestor of the author of the S¡hitya-Darpa¸a: interpreted camatk¡ra as an expansion of the heart, citta vist¡ra and held all kinds of rasa-realization to be of the nature of this camatk¡ra or citta-vist¡ra, of which the best example was adbhuta rasa"- informs Dr Raghavan. But camtk¡ra occurs in Dhvany¡loka and Locana as all-comprehensive for literary relish according to Dr Raghavan. Agni Pur¡na, kavi, Ka¸thara¸a and S¡hityam¢m¡Æs¡ also refer to this term. Vi¿ve¿vara in his Camatk¡ra-Candrik¡ maintains that camatk¡ra is sah¤daya's delight on reading a poem and gu¸a, r¢ti, v¢tti, p¡ka, ¿ayy¡, alamk¡ra and rasa are seven ¡lambanas in a poem. Hari Prasad, the author of K¡vyaloka calls camatk¤ti the soul of poetry.

R. Gnoli maintains that probably Utpaladeva was the first, in the Kashmir Saivite tradition to use this term in a technical sense.[18] It is a fond term of Abhinavagupta in his Ëgamic works. The term citta-camatk¡ra has been translated as 'self flashing of light' by Dr Dasgupta refers Gnoli.[19] Dr Dasgupta appears to be correct in taking camatk¡ra in the sense of 'flash'. This meaning is preserved in Pr¡k¤ta  camakkai for camatkaroti. Hindi also preserves this meaning. The sudden flash of lightning etc., causes wonder and it appears to be quite natural that the sense of 'wonder' and 'relish are an addition to the original meaning of 'flash'.

Thus it is apparent that aesthetic delight designated by camatka does have the connotation of 'flash and 'light'. Pratibh¡ is another such term with the connotation of 'light and 'flash'.

It may be noticed that the three terms rasa, dhvani and camatk¡ra designating the supersensuous and the core aesthetic experience have been evolved with the background of the elements ¡paÅ, ¡k¡¿a and tejas respectively, but there is no such term with the background of the remaining two elements to.designate the core experience. However, there are such terms either for defining the intermediary process of rasa experience or to designate the very general aspect of beauty. For example, bh¡va  is made to derive from bh£- intended in two different meanings, that is 'to cause to be' (viz., to bring about, to create, etc.,) and 'to pervade'. Here bh¡vitam has been explained as v¡sitam (pervaded)[20] and according to this meaning bh¡vas are so-called because they pervade, as a smell, the minds of spectators of drama. Here bh¡van¡ or v¡san¡ has a clear connotation of smell, which is a quality of earth. This inlermediary act of pervading of mind by bh¡va has been designated by a term with the background of the earth-element.

Terms employed for beauty [21] have the background of different elements from the very beginning. For example, the terms ár¢, madhu, and supe¿as have the background of tejas, ¡paÅ (water) and r£pa. The adjectives such as vibh¡var¢, ¿ukra, and ¿ociÅ have the background of tejas. S£nar¢ has been linked with the later word sundara by Peterson. If it is correct, then sunara may also be linked with apah, for word for the etymology of sundnra appears to be suÀ¶hu undaÆ kledanaÆ r¡ti-that which brings about melting.

M¡dhurya and l¡vanya too, are very apparently linked with ¡paÅ, ¿obh¡, k¡nti are associated with tejas.

C¡ru is a term so common for beautiful. Etymologically it appears to be derived from car- to move. Thus c¡ru is that which moves, which vibrates in the heart. Movement and vibration are the qualities of v¡yu (wind).

Thus it may be concluded that as there is a correspondence between macrocosm and microcosmic body, external and internal sense-organs; vital air and speech, there is a correspondence between sensuous and aesthetic as well as religious spiritual experience. Beauty is the experience of unity of the sensuous and supersensuous. It is an experience of totality. This experience has also been designated by terms with the elemental background.

[1] 1 . Ënandavardhana hinted at the rasa experience of the poet artist in the process of creative expression and Abhinava elaborated the point in his Locana.

k¡vyasy¡tm¡ sa ev¡rthastath¡ c¡dikaveÅ pur¡ I

krauµcadvandvaviyogottaÅ ¿okaÅ ¿lokatvam¡gataÅ II

                                                     (Dhvany¡loka, 1.5)

na tu muneÅ ¿oka iti mantavyam I evaÆ sati taddu&Åkhena so'pi duÅkhita

iti k¤tv¡ ras¡tmateti niravak¡¿aÆ bhavet I na ca ¿okasantaptasya eÀ¡ da¿eti

evaÆ hi carv¸ocita¿okasth¡yibh¡tmakakaru¸arasa-samuccalana-svabh¡vatv¡t

sa eva k¡vyasy¡tm¡ s¡rabh£tasvabh¡vo' para¿abdavailakÀa¸yak¡rakaÅ I

                                               Locana, Dhvany¡loka, I uddyota, p. 160


[2] . The Vedic Experience ,R.Panikkar, p. 73,M.L.B.D.Delhi, 1983.


[3] ."The Indian Arts: Backgrouns and Principles" Kapila Vatsyayan in R£pa-Pratir£pa,

     Ed. by Bettina Baumer, p.16, Biblia Impex Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi,1982

[4] Ibid., p. 13


[5] ¿ivo hi parav¡´mayamah¡mantrav¢ryavis¤À¶imayaÅ parame¿var¢vis¤À¶y¡ tad-

   v¢ryaghanat¡tmakapras£nanirbharay¡ s¤À¶y¡ yujyate I Par¡tr¢¿ik¡ Vivara¸a,

   Text, p. 15, Dr Jaideva Singh, Ed. by Bettina B¡umer, p. 42, M.L.B.D. Delhi,


    parav¡´mayamantr¡tmav¢yamayaÅ ¿ivam I

   svav¢ryaghanat¡r£pedant¡sphura¸r£pay¡  II

   yujyate satataÆ s¤À¶y¡ sv¢ya¿aktivis¤À¶ay¡  I 

   ade¿ak¡lakalitaspand¡tm¡nuttar¡bhidhaÅ  Ii

   (Rameshvar Jha, Pur¸at¡pratyabhijµ¡, 17. 18 p. 6, R.V. Joshi & Brothers, Varanasi,


[6] . tath¡ hi sarveÀ¡mantarbahiÀkara¸¡n¡Æ yat yat anupravi¿ati tattat            madhyan¡·¢bhuvi sarv¡´g¡nup¡¸as¡r¡y¡Æ pr¡¸¡tman¡ cetanar£pe¸a ¡ste-oja iti

kathyate I tadeva sarv¡´geÀu anupr¡¸akatay¡ tadavibhaktav¢ryar£patvena tato'pi punarapi nayana¿rava¸¡deva¸¡d¢ndriyadv¡re¸a b¤´hakar£paÆ r£pa¿abd¡di anupr¡vi¿at b¤´hakatv¡deva tatv¢ryakÀobhar£pak¡m¡nalaprabodhakaÆ bhavati II

                                                                                                             Ibid., p.42.

[7] .Ibid., p.52.


[8] .Ibid.


[9] . The Aesthetic Experience According to Abhinavagupta, Introduction, p.xiv, R. Gnoli,  III Edition, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, Vaanasi, 1985

[10] atha yaiteÀ¡Æ sapt¡n¡Æ puruÀ¡¸¡Æ ¿r¢Å yo rasa ¡sit tam£rdhvaÆ samusauhan-

stadasya ¿iro'bhavat I yacchriyaÆ samusauhan stasm¡cchiraÅ I tasminnetasmin-

pr¡¸¡ a¿rayanta I tasm¡dvevaitaxxhiraÅ I atha yatpr¡¸¡ a¿rayanta tasm¡du            pr¡¸¡Å ¿riyaÅ ¿riyaÅ I atha yatsarvasminna¿rayanta tasm¡du ¿ar¢ram II"

"atha ya¿crite'gnirnidhiyate-yaivaiteÀ¡Æ sapt¡n¡Æ puruÀ¡¸¡Æ ¿r¢Å, ho rasÅ

-tametad£rdhvaÆ samud£hanti tadasy¡itacchiraÅ-tasminnetasmintsarve dev¡Å

¿rit¡Å I atra hi sarvebhyo devebhyo juhvati Itasm¡dvevaitacchiraÅ II"

(áBr, VI.1.1.4,7)

"asadv¡ idamagra ¡s¢t Itato vai sadaj¡yata I tad¡tm¡naÆ svayamakur£ta II

tasm¡ttatsuk¤tamucyata iti I yadvai tatsuk¤tam I raso vai saÅ I rasaÆ hyev¡yaÆ

labhv¡nand¢ bhavati I ko hyev¡ny¡ti kaÅ p¡¸y¡t I yadeÀa ¡k¡¿a ¡nando na

sy¡t I eÀa hyev¡nanday¡ti I yad¡ hyevaiÀa etasminnad¤¿ye' n¡tmye' nilayane' bhavaÆ

pratiÀ¶h¡Æ vindate I atha so'bhavati I yad¡hyrvaiÀa estasminnudaramantaraÆ

kurute I kurute I atha tasya bhayaÆ bhavati I yad¡ hyevaiÀo'manv¡nasya I

tadapyeÀa ¿loka bhavati II "

                                                                                                        TUp, II.7

[11] Dhavay¡loka, II.10, V¤tti and Locana, pp. 212-13, Ed. by Pattabhirama Shastri,

     Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series, Varanasi-Vikrama Samvat,1997.

[12] Rasaga´g¡dhra, Ed by Durga Prasad, Editon IV,K¡vyam¡l¡, 12,   Bombay,1930.ref.1.


[13] 13. Coleridge and Abhinavagipta, Shri Krishna, p. 545, Mirzapur, Darbhanga, 1979.


[14] . yatr¡ntarakhilaÆ bh¡ti yacca sarvatra bh¡sate I

     sphurattaiva hi s¡ hyek¡ h¤dayaÆ paramaÆ budh¡Å II

                                            ( par¡tr¢¿ik¡ Vivara¸a, Text, p. 99).

     yath¡ nyagrodhab¢jasthaÅ jagadetaccar¡caram II

    iha asat na t¡vat kiµcit ityuktam I vi¿v¡tmakamiti I tat¿ca yath¡ va¶ab¢je

   tatsamucitenaiva vapuÀ¡ a´kuravi¶apapatraphal¡ni tiÀ¶anti, evaÆ II

  ( Ibid., Text, pp. 92-93.) ( Tr. by Dr Jaideva Singh, Par¡tr¢¿ik¡, p. 260).

[15] . K¡vya-prak¡¿a, Ed. by Pattalakikara, p. 19, Pune, 1950


[16] .Locana, Dhvany¡loka Ed. by Pattattabhirama Shastri, pp. 340-41.

[17] Studies in some concepts of Abhinavagupta, Introduction, pp.xlv-vi.


[18] Aesthetic Eeperience According to Abhinavagupta, Introduction, pp.  xlv-vi

[19] .  Ibid., p. xlvi


[20] bh£ iti (¸yantaÅ) kara¸e dh¡vitaÆ v¡sitaÆ k¤tam ityanarth¡ntaram II"

       N¡¶ya¿¡stra, Vol. I, Forth revised edition, Ed. by Dr K.krishnamurti;  Oriental

       Institute, Vadodara, 1992,p. 338.

[21] .Cf.D.H.H. Ingalls, "Words for Beauty, in Classical Sanskrit Poetry" , In W.

     Norman Brown Felicitation Volume, pp. 87-107.


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