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Vaikuṇṭha-Viśvarūpa Vol. I

D:alphasitereports-2/Ti

TSM 1989/90

DFG-AZ.: Ma 1069/3-l

Kennwort: Vaikuṇṭha-Viśvarūpa

 

Bericht uber die Ikonographic, Chronologie und Interpretation

des archaologischen Materials

 

TEIL I

SKULPTUREN DES Vaikuṇṭha - UND Viśvarūpa-

TYPUS IN REGION 1

(RAJASTHAN MIT ANGRENZENDEN GEBIETEN IN GUJARAT)

 

 

T. S. Maxwell

 

 

MAP OF

REGION 1 (RAJASTHAN AND N. GVJARAT):

DISTRIBUTION OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL MATERIAL

KEY:

1./2.

ARTHUNA

Temple site

3.

DUNGARPUR

State Museum

4.

AHAR

State Museum

5./6./7.

EKALINGJI

Mira temple

8./9./10.

NAGDA

Sāsbāhu temple

11./12.

CITTAURGADH

State Museum

13./14.

BIJOLIYAM

Mahākāla and Uṇḍeśvara temples

15.

KOTA

State Museum

16.

JHALAVADH

State Museum

17.

CANDRAVATI

Southern Viṣṇu shrine

18./19.

AJMER

State (Rajputana) Museum

20./21./22.

NILKAṆṬH

Nīlakaṇṭha Mahādeva temple

23.

NAND

Dev Nārāyaṇ temple

24.

JATGARH

Fort temple

25.

BHARATPUR

State Museum

26.

SAMALAJI (Gujarat)

Kalasi chokra ni Ma temple

27.

KATHLAL (Gujarat)

Hochschule, Kathlal

^ =

Architecture/iconographic programme 400-1200

SKULPTUREN DES Vaikuṇṭha- / Viśvarūpa -TYPUS IN REGION

1. DREIKOPFIGER VIṢṆU AUF GARUḌA

Stein: 87,63 x 50,80

urspr. 20 Hande

In situ, Arthuna; ASI-Nr.63

1.1DESCRIPTION:

Three-beaded Viṣṇu seated on Garuḍa. The side-heads are those of Śiva Bhairava (r.) and Brahmā (1.). The Garuḍa figure is anthropomorphic with a snake around the neck. The Viṣṇu figure was originally 20-armed; the only remaining attribute is śaṅkha (damaged) in the front left hand. The uppermost hands on either side hold miniature images of Brahmā (r.) and Śiva (1.). Quiver of arrows behind right shoulder. Ear-overlap used.

1.2PRELIMINARY IDENTIFICATION:

Viṣṇu augmented by the addition of the faces and images of ŚIVA and BRAHMĀ (commonly Hariharapitāmaha or Dattātreya, but with far more than the iconographically required 6 arms); this sculpture seems to be conceptually related to the 20-armed Viśvarūpa concept in its multiple identity and originally large number of attributes, but without the avatāra faces.

Nr. 1: Arthuna 

ASI-63

 


2. DREIKOPFIGER VIṢṆU AUF GARUḌA

Stein: 91,45 x 58,42

urspr. 12 Hande

In situ, Arthuna; ASI-Nr.39

2.1DESCRIPTION:

Three-headed Viṣṇu seated on anthropomorphic Garuḍa. The Viṣṇu figure has siṃha (r.) and varāha (1.) side-heads; originally 12-armed; the only remaining attribute is cakra in uppermost left hand. Small figure of Brahmā above the cakra. Ear-overlap used.

2.2PRELIMINARY IDENTIFICATION:

an augmented form of Vaikuṇṭha, akin to ANANTA

(Aparājitapṛcchā 219.33-37).


3. DREIKOPFIGER VIṢṆU AUF GARUḌA

Stein: 71,12 x 40,64

urspr. 20 Hande

aus Pith, Dungarpur-Distrikt

Government Museum, Dungarpur

3.1DESCRIPTION:

Three-headed Viṣṇu seated on anthropomorphic Garuḍa. The Viṣṇu figure has side-heads which are theriomorphic but too narrowly depicted for visual identification; originally 20-armed; 4 attributes remain, viz. Kheṭaka top left, hand drawing arrow from quiver top right, akṣamālā on varada-mudrā bottom right, śaṅkha (broken) bottom left. Ear-overlap used.

3.2PRELIMINARY IDENTIFICATION:

an augmented form of Vaikuṇṭha, probably Viśvarūpa. (Aparājitapṛcchā 219.26-32, cp. Rūpamaṇḍana 3.55-57, cp. Agnipurāṇa 49.21-23).


4. DREIKOPFIGER VIṢṆU

>

Stein: 74.93 x 47,00

urspr. 14 Hande

aus Gangodbheda Kund, Ahar

State Museum, Ahar; Inv.-Nr.1/4

4.1DESCRIPTION:

Three-headed Viṣṇu with siṃha (r.) and varāha (1.) side-heads; 14 hands:-

 

?aṅkuśa

kheṭaka

cakra

gadā

?danta/`śṛṅgī

śaṅkha

bāṇa

-?-

khaḍga

bījapūraka

varadamudrā

kamaṇḍalu

jñāna -/

vyākhyānamudrā

1.h. supports r.h.

 

Independent āyudhapuruṣas on plinth: Śankhapuruṣa (r.), Cakrapuruṣa (1.). The side-heads of Viṣṇu are siṃha (r.) and varāha (1.). rendered in flat relief and partly concealed by cakra and gadā; the snouts of the avatāra-heads touch the back of the cakra and kheṭaka. The double-handed teaching mudrā (?yogamudrā, APRP 219.40) in front of the body is of interest; the concept of three-headed teaching Viṣṇu as guru/communicator of vaiṣṇavī vidyā probably originated in Pā?carātra images in Kashmir, and it is perpetuated into the 12th century or later in the Rajasthan/Gujarat area (cf. Pal, Indian Sculpture 2, Los Angeles/Berkeley 1988: p.56, no.56, "A Cosmic Form of Vishnu"). All heads crowned. Polished marble.

4.2PRELIMINARY IDENTIFICATION:

an augmented form of Vaikuṇṭha, between ANANTA and TRAILOKYAMOHANA (cf. Aparājitapṛcchā 219.33-41).

Nr. 4: Ahar (Museum)

aus Gangodbheda Kund

Ahar-1/4

 


5. DREIKOPFIGER VIṢṆU AUF GARUḌA

stein: ---- x ----

8 Hande

In situ, 'Mira'-Tempel, Eklingji: Nordbhadra

5.1DESCRIPTION:

Measurement and photography prohibited. Three-headed Viṣṇu seated on flying anthropomorphic Garuḍa. Viṣṇu with siṃha (r.) and varāha (l.)

side-heads. Tall kirīṭmukunta. 8 arms:--

 

khaḍga

kheṭaka

gadā

śaṇkha

2xbāṇa

----

vajra

----

 

5.2PRELIMINARY IDENTIFICATION:

a form of Vaikuṇṭha (cp. Aparājitapṛcchā 219.24-27).


6.DREIKOPFIGER VIṢṆU AUF GARUḌA

Stein: ---- x ----12

12 Hande

In situ, 'Mira'-Tempel, Eklingji: Ostbhadra

6.1DESCRIPTION:

Measurement and photography prohibited. Three-headed Viṣṇu seated on flying anthropomorphic Garuḍa. Tall kirīṭa. 12 arms:--

 

khaḍga

kheṭaka

gadā

śaṅkha

vajra

daṇḍa

padma(?)

pāśa

cakra

padma (?)

varadamudrā

kamaṇḍalu

 

6.2PRELIMARY IDENTIFICATION:

An augmented form of Vaikuṇṭha, akin to ANANTA

(Aparājitapṛchhā 219.33-37).


7.DREIKOPFIGER VIṢṆU AUF GARUḌA

Stein: ---- x ----

urspr. 16 Hande

In situ, 'Mira'-Tempel, Eklingji: Siidbhadra

7.1DESCRIPTION:

Measurement and photography prohibited. Three-headed Viṣṇu seated on

flying anthropomorphic Garuḍa. Tall kirīṭa 16 arms:--

 

cakra

sarpa/pāśa(?)

gadā

padma(?)

pustaka(?)

śaṅkha

2xbāṇa

dhanus

vajra

sruk(?)

----

----

varadamudrā

w.(?)daṇḍa

kamaṇḍalu

 

vitarkamudrā resting on l.h. palm.

7.2PRELIMINARY IDENTIFICATION:

an augmented form of Vaikuṇṭha, akin to TRAILOKYAMOHANA

(cp. Aparājitapṛchhā 219.38-41).

7.3REMARK:

These 3 images (#5, #6, #7) as a group appear to correspond to the three icon-types described in Aparājitapṛchhā 219.28-41, viz. Vaikuṇṭha. ANANTA, and TRAILOKYAMOHANA (the latter two being augmented forms of Vaikuṇṭha).


8.DREIKBPFIGER VIṢṆU

Stein: 55,88 x 35,56

urspr. 10 Hande

In situ, sāsbāhu-Tempel, Nagda: Anataralawand, Sudeite, Mitte

8.1DESCRIPTION:

Three-headed Viṣṇu seated on anthropomorphic Garuḍa under a karimakara-toraṇa between pilasters flanked by elephants and vyālas. Garuḍa appears in flying posture facing left, left leg broken; a diminutive figure appears to each side on the base. Viṣṇu has tall kirīṭa and downward sloping side-faces, lion on the right, boar on the left, overlapped by swordblade and noose. One right hand is missing. 10 arms:--

 

bana

cakra

snile

dhams

musala

pāśa

gadā

kamaṇdal

khaḍga

śaṅkha

 

8.2PRELIMINARY IDENTIFICATION:

An augmented form of Vaikuṇṭha, attributed with symbols of Balarāma, Brahmā, Yama.

Nr. 8: Nagda

Sasbahu-Tempel, S

 


9.DREIKBPFIGER VIṢṆU

Stein: 22,37 x 14,23

8 Hande

In situ, sāsbāhu-Tempel, Nagda: Garbhagrhaeingang, Hauptsakha, rechts.

9.1DESCRIPTION:

Three-headed Viṣṇu, standing. Side-heads are theriomorphic but indistin-guishable from each other. 8 arms:---

 

---

kheṭaka

abhayamudrā

cakra

khaḍga

dhanus

gadā

śaṅkha

 

Iconographical context on right sanctum doorframe śākhā, from base upward: 1. female dancer w. 2 musicians / 2. Cakrapuruṣa w. cakra in r.h., leans on gadā / 3. Vaikuṇṭha-form / 4. Narasiṃha, standing, in battle w. Hiraṇyakaśipu / 5. Trivikrama w. Vāmana / 6. Śiva w. Pārvatī, standing.

9.2PRELIMINARY IDENTIFICATION:

A form of Vaikuṇṭha associated with the disk, destruction and conquest.

Nr. 9: Nagda

Sabahu-Tempel

Hauptsakha, R.

 


10.DREIKBPFIGER VIṢṆU

Stein: 24,40 x 14,25

8 Hande

In situ, sāsbāhu-Tempel, Nagda: Garbhgrhaeingang, Hauptsakha, links

10.1DESCRIPTION:

Three-headed Viṣṇu standing. Side-heads are theriomorphic but almost indistinguishable from each other. 8 arms:--

 

gadā

kheṭaka

khaḍga

----

bāṇa

dhanus

varadamudrā

śaṅkha

 

Iconographical context on left sanctum doorframe śākhā, from base upward: 1. three dancers / 2. Śaṅkhapuruṣa w. śaṅkha in l.h., leaning on gadā / 3. Vaikuṇṭha-form / 4. Varāha / 5. Gajendramokṣa / Viṣṇu w. Lakṣmī, standing.

10.2PRELIMINARY IDENTIFICATION:

A form of Vaikuṇṭha associated with the conch, preservation and stability.

Nr.10: Nagda

Sasbahu-Tempel

Hauptsakha, L.

 


 

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Copyright (c) T. S. Maxwell 1990